Providing a Framework for the Development of Social Commerce

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Humanities and Arts, University of Hazrat-e Masoumeh, Qom, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran


The increasing complexity and transformation of the business environment resulting from the development of information technology as well as the advent of Web 2.0 interactive tools have led to the formation of networking and social media platforms. The trend towards changing processes in the field of marketing and e-commerce has not only influenced firms to adapt but has also made them more inclined to choose more aggressive tools and strategies to stay competitive and gain an advantage in this evolving environment. Meanwhile, the development of social commerce taking place in the context of widespread developments can impact choosing one of these tools. Social media has developed online platforms through which people can create, share, and exchange their experiences with others. They enable users to follow a variety of content through text, images, music, and video, and to share generated content in a variety of ways in addition to creating original content (Liao et al., 2022). Therefore, the media not only strengthen the connections between network users but also help companies to establish closer relationships with their consumers and, consequently, increase sales of products and services (Mou & Benyoucef, 2021).
This study is conducted primarily to provide a framework for the development of social commerce. This is a qualitative study in terms of strategy, a basic study in terms of purpose, and a descriptive study in terms of nature and method. In this study, the Barroso and Sandelowski (2007) meta-synthesis strategy was used to collect data, and the Braun and Clark (2006) thematic analysis method was used to analyze the data. The references were screened using the meta-synthesis approach. Out of a total of 221 related papers published between 2010 and 2020, 76 were carefully reviewed. The researchers used the Kappa coefficient to evaluate the reliability of the findings, and the triangulation method to validate research findings.
After analyzing the findings by the thematic analysis method, 33 basic themes, nine organizing themes, and three comprehensive themes were identified and labeled as "social value creation", "technological synergy", and "social normalization". According to the results, special attention should be paid to factors such as social trust-building, network marketing, shared value creation, controlled risk, content-oriented interactions, social support, social and value communication with the customer, exchange of cognitive-emotional experiences, platform support, interactive content production, social sharing, reproduction of social capital, and development of social interactions to develop social commerce.
Examining past findings showed that various factors are involved in the success and development of social business. This study, with a comprehensive approach, could manage to investigate the factors affecting the creation and development of social commerce systematically and, in the meantime, provide a framework for the development of this field.


Main Subjects

Abed, S.S. (2020). Social commerce adoption using TOE framework: An empirical investigation of Saudi Arabian SMEs. International Journal of Information Management, 53, 102118.
Akman, I. & Mishra, A. (2017). Factors influencing consumer intention in social commerce adoption. Information Technology & People, 30(2), 356-370.
Aladwani, A. M. (2018). A quality-facilitated socialization model of social commerce decisions. International Journal of Information Management, 40, 1-7.
Alshibly, H. H. (2014). A free simulation experiment to examine the effects of social commerce website quality and customer psychological empowerment on customers' satisfaction. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 21.
Attar, R. W., Shanmugam, M. & Hajli, N. (2021). Investigating the antecedents of e-commerce satisfaction in social commerce context. British Food Journal, 123(3), 849-868.
Baghdadi, Y. (2016). A framework for social commerce design. Information Systems, 60, 95-113.
Bordbar, A., Abdolvand, N., Ghanbartehrani, N., Rajaee Harandi, S. (2019). Developing a Business Model for Social Commerce in Tourism Industry in Iran. Journal of Business Management, 11(4), 895-918. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2019.270519.3335. (in Persian)
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Bugshan, H. & Attar, R. W. (2020). Social commerce information sharing and their impact on consumers. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 153, 119875.
Busalim, A. H., Ghabban, F. & Hussin, A. R. C. (2021). Customer engagement behaviour on social commerce platforms: An empirical study. Technology in Society, 64, 101437.
Chen, A., Lu, Y. & Wang, B. (2017). Customers’ purchase decision-making process in social commerce: A social learning perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 37(6), 627-638.
Chen, L., Zhu, F. & Mantrala, M. (2021). The path of support-to-sales: mediating role of seller collaborative information exchange in social commerce. European Journal of Marketing, 55(2), 363-384.
Chen, S., Min, Q. & Xu, X. (2021). Investigating the role of social identification on impulse buying in mobile social commerce: a cross-cultural comparison. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 121(12), 2571-2594.
Chen, Y., Lu, Y., Wang, B. & Pan, Z. (2019). How do product recommendations affect impulse buying? An empirical study on WeChat social commerce. Information & Management, 56(2), 236-248.
Chung, N., Song, H. G. & Lee, H. (2017). Consumers’ impulsive buying behavior of restaurant products in social commerce. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(2), 709-731.
Cuomo, M. T., Mazzucchelli, A., Chierici, R. & Ceruti, F. (2020). Exploiting online environment to engage customers: social commerce brand community. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 23(3), 339-361.
Dashti, M., Sanayei, A. (2018). Effective Factors on Social Shopping Intention in Social Commerce. Journal of Business Management, 10(1), 97-120. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2018.228507.2508 (in Persian)
Erdoğmuş, İ. E. & Tatar, Ş. B. (2015). Drivers of Social Commerce through Brand Engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 189-195.
Fallah, M., Jamipour, M., Taheri, G. (2018). Designing a Framework to Implement Social Commerce from the Perspective of Organizational Change Capacity. Journal of Business Management, 9(4), 855-876. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2017.224037.2426 (in Persian)
Farivar, S., Turel, O. & Yuan, Y. (2017). A trust-risk perspective on social commerce use: an examination of the biasing role of habit. Internet Research, 27(3), 586-607.
Friedrich, T. (2015). Analyzing the Factors that Influence Consumers' Adoption of Social Commerce–A Literature Review. Proceedings of the 21st Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS),At: Puerto Rico, USA
Friedrich, T. (2016). On the factors influencing consumers’ adoption of social commerce–a review of the empirical literature. Pacific Asia Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8(4), 2.
Gan, C. & Wang, W. (2017). The influence of perceived value on purchase intention in social commerce context. Internet Research, 27(4), 772-785.
Ghahtarani, A., Sheikhmohammady, M., & Rostami, M. (2020). The impact of social capital and social interaction on customers’ purchase intention, considering knowledge sharing in social commerce context. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 5(3), 191-199.
Gibreel, O., AlOtaibi, D. A. & Altmann, J. (2018). Social commerce development in emerging markets. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 27, 152-162.
Grange, C., Benbasat, I. & Burton-Jones, A. (2020). A network-based conceptualization of social commerce and social commerce value. Computers in Human Behavior, 108.
Hajli, M. (2013). A research framework for social commerce adoption. Information Management & Computer Security, 21(3), 144-154.
Hajli, N. (2020). The impact of positive valence and negative valence on social commerce purchase intention. Information Technology & People, 33(2), 774-791.
Han, H., Xu, H. & Chen, H. (2018). Social commerce: A systematic review and data synthesis. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 30, 38-50.
Horng, S.-M. & Wu, C.-L. (2020). How behaviors on social network sites and online social capital influence social commerce intentions. Information & Management, 57(2).
Hossain, M. S., Rahman, M. F. & Zhou, X. (2021). Impact of customers' interpersonal interactions in social commerce on customer relationship management performance. Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, 4(1), 161-181.
Hu, T., Dai, H. & Salam, A. F. (2019). Integrative qualities and dimensions of social commerce: Toward a unified view. Information & Management, 56(2), 249-270.
Hu, X., Chen, X. & Davison, R. M. (2019). Social support, source credibility, social influence, and impulsive purchase behavior in social commerce. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 23(3), 297-327.
Huang, G. I., Chen, Y. V. & Wong, I. A. (2020). Hotel guests’ social commerce intention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(2), 706-729.
Huang, Z. & Benyoucef, M. (2015). User preferences of social features on social commerce websites: An empirical study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 95, 57-72.
Jafari, S., Habibi, P., Mohammadi Doorbash, Z. (2018). Investigating the Effect of Social Business Characteristics on Trust and Willingness to Partnership. Journal of Business Management, 10(4), 777-794. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2018.249527.2905 (in Persian)
Jang, H., Ko, I. & Kim, J. (2013, 7-10 Jan. 2013). The Effect of Group-Buy Social Commerce and Coupon on Satisfaction and Continuance Intention -- Focusing on the Expectation Confirmation Model (ECM). 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Kanani, R. & Glavee-Geo, R. (2021). Breaking the uncertainty barrier in social commerce: The relevance of seller and customer-based signals. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 48, 101059.
Leong, L.Y., Hew, T.S., Ooi, K.B. & Chong, A. Y.L. (2020). Predicting the antecedents of trust in social commerce–A hybrid structural equation modeling with neural network approach. Journal of Business Research, 110, 24-40.
Leung, W. K. S., Shi, S. & Chow, W. S. (2020). Impacts of user interactions on trust development in C2C social commerce. Internet Research, 30(1), 335-356.
Liang, T.-P. & Turban, E. (2011). Introduction to the Special Issue Social Commerce: A Research Framework for Social Commerce. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 16(2), 5-14.
Liang, T.-P., Ho, Y.-T., Li, Y.-W. & Turban, E. (2011). What Drives Social Commerce: The Role of Social Support and Relationship Quality. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 16(2), 69-90.
Liao, S.-H., Widowati, R. & Cheng, C.-J. (2022). Investigating Taiwan Instagram users’ behaviors for social media and social commerce development. Entertainment Computing, 40, 100461.
Lim, X.-J., Cheah, J.-H., Waller, D. S., Ting, H. & Ng, S. I. (2020). What s-commerce implies? Repurchase intention and its antecedents. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 38(6), 760-776.
Lin, J., Li, L., Yan, Y. & Turel, O. (2018). Understanding Chinese consumer engagement in social commerce: The roles of social support and swift guanxi. Internet Research.
Lin, X., Li, Y. & Wang, X. (2017). Social commerce research: Definition, research themes and the trends. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 190-201.
Liu, C., Bao, Z. & Zheng, C. (2019). Exploring consumers’ purchase intention in social commerce. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 31(2), 378-397.
Maia, C. R., Lunardi, G. L., Dolci, D. & D’Avila, L. C. (2020). Competitive price and trust as determinants of purchase intention in social commerce. BAR-Brazilian Administration Review, 16(4).
Manian, A., Ronaghi, M. (2015). A Comprehensive Framework for E-marketing Implementation by Meta-Synthesis Method. Journal of Business Management, 7(4), 901-920. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2015.57097 (in Persian)
Meilatinova, N. (2021). Social commerce: Factors affecting customer repurchase and word-of-mouth intentions. International Journal of Information Management, 57, 102300.
Molinillo, S., Anaya-Sánchez, R. & Liébana-Cabanillas, F. (2020). Analyzing the effect of social support and community factors on customer engagement and its impact on loyalty behaviors toward social commerce websites. Computers in Human Behavior, 108, 105980.
Mou, J. & Benyoucef, M. (2021). Consumer behavior in social commerce: Results from a meta-analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 167, 120734.
Nadeem, W., Tan, T. M., Tajvidi, M. & Hajli, N. (2021). How do experiences enhance brand relationship performance and value co-creation in social commerce? The role of consumer engagement and self brand-connection. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 171, 120952.
Nakayama, M. & Wan, Y. (2019). The cultural impact on social commerce: A sentiment analysis on Yelp ethnic restaurant reviews. Information & Management, 56(2), 271-279.
Oleynikova, E. & Zorkin, Y. (2016). Social commerce as a driver of sustainable development of the information economy of the city. Procedia Engineering, 165, 1556-1562.
Osatuyi, B. & Turel, O. (2018). Tug of war between social self-regulation and habit: Explaining the experience of momentary social media addiction symptoms. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 95-105.
Osatuyi, B., Qin, H., Osatuyi, T. & Turel, O. (2020). When it comes to Satisfaction… It depends: An empirical examination of social commerce users. Computers in Human Behavior, 111, 106413.
Pouti, N., Taghavifard, M., Taghva, M., Fathian, M. (2021). A Systematic Review of Social Commerce Adoption by Customers. Iranian Journal of Information Management, 7(1), 1-34. doi: 10.22034/aimj.2021.134763 (in Persian)
Rahmanpour M, Nasr Esfehani A R. (2014). Internal and external research methodologies relevant to the curriculum in higher education. CSTP, 1 (2), 125-148. (in Persian)
Rostami, R., Nasrollahi, M. (2021). The requirements of justice demand from the viewpoint of the Supreme Leader of Revolution. Basij Strategic Studies, 23(89), 5-30. (in Persian).
 Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. Springer Publishing Company. New York.
Seo, S. & Moon, S. (2016). Decision-making styles of restaurant deal consumers who use social commerce. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(11), 2493-2513.
Shanmugam, M., Sun, S., Amidi, A., Khani, F. & Khani, F. (2016). The applications of social commerce constructs. International Journal of Information Management, 36(3), 425-432.
Sheikh, Z., Islam, T., Rana, S., Hameed, Z. & Saeed, U. (2017). Acceptance of social commerce framework in Saudi Arabia. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1693-1708.
Sheikh, Z., Yezheng, L., Islam, T., Hameed, Z. & Khan, I. U. (2019). Impact of social commerce constructs and social support on social commerce intentions. Information Technology & People, 32(1), 68-93.
Shi, S. & Chow, W. S. (2015). Trust development and transfer in social commerce: prior experience as moderator. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(7), 1182-1203.
Sohn, J. W. & Kim, J. K. (2020). Factors that influence purchase intentions in social commerce. Technology in Society, 63, 101365.
Stephen, A. T. & Toubia, O. (2010). Deriving value from social commerce networks. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(2), 215-228.
Taghavifard, M., Raeisi Vanani, I., Dehdashti Shahrokh, Z., Arzy, A. (2020). Tripadvisor Users’ Profile Analysis: A Data Mining Approach. Iranian Journal of Information Management, 6(1), 24-41. doi: 10.22034/aimj.2020.118655. (in Persian)
Tuncer, I. (2021). The relationship between IT affordance, flow experience, trust, and social commerce intention: An exploration using the S-O-R paradigm. Technology in Society, 65, 101567.
Wang, X., Lin, X. & Spencer, M. K. (2019). Exploring the effects of extrinsic motivation on consumer behaviors in social commerce: Revealing consumers’ perceptions of social commerce benefits. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 163-175.
Wang, Y., Fan, R., Shen, L. & Miller, W. (2020). Recycling decisions of low-carbon e-commerce closed-loop supply chain under government subsidy mechanism and altruistic preference. Journal of Cleaner production, 259, 120883.
Wu, Y.-L. & Li, E. Y. (2018). Marketing mix, customer value, and customer loyalty in social commerce: A stimulus-organism-response perspective. Internet Research, 28(1), 74-104.
Xue, J., Liang, X., Xie, T. & Wang, H. (2020). See now, act now: How to interact with customers to enhance social commerce engagement? Information & Management, 57(6), 103324.
Yahia, I. B., Al-Neama, N. & Kerbache, L. (2018). Investigating the drivers for social commerce in social media platforms: Importance of trust, social support and the platform perceived usage. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41, 11-19.
Yang, J., Sia, C. L., Liu, L. & Chen, H. (2016). Sellers versus buyers: differences in user information sharing on social commerce sites. Information Technology & People, 29(2), 444-470.
Yang, X. (2019). Consumers’ decisions in social commerce: the role of elements. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 31(4), 759-772.
Yang, X. (2021). Exchanging social support in social commerce: The role of peer relations. Computers in Human Behavior, 124, 106911.
Yeon, J., Park, I. & Lee, D. (2019). What creates trust and who gets loyalty in social commerce? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 138-144.
Yu, Y., Wang, X., Zhong, R. Y. & Huang, G. Q. (2017). E-commerce logistics in supply chain management: Implementations and future perspective in furniture industry. Industrial Management & Data Systems.
Yusuf, A. S. & Busalim, A. H. (2018). Influence of e-WOM engagement on consumer purchase intention in social commerce. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(4), 493-504.
Zhang, T., Jahromi, M. F., Hua, N. & Lu, L. (2020). Engaging customers with hospitality brands in social commerce activities. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 11(4), 627-642.
Zhang, Y., Liu, L. & Ho, S. Y. (2020). How do interruptions affect user contributions on social commerce? Information Systems Journal, 30(3), 535-565.
Zhao, Y., Wang, L., Tang, H. & Zhang, Y. (2020). Electronic word-of-mouth and consumer purchase intentions in social e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 41, 100980.
Zhong, Y. (2012). Social Commerce: A New Electronic Commerce. The Eleventh Wuhan International Conference on E-Business - E-Business and Developments Track.
Zhou, L., Zhang, P. & Zimmermann, H.-D. (2013). Social commerce research: An integrated view. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(2), 61-68.
Zhou, T. (2019). The effect of social interaction on users' social commerce intention. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 17(4), 391-408.