Examining the Impact of Cognitive and Emotional Factors on Consumer Behavioral Responses in Online Behavioral Advertising

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

3 MSc., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.



With the rapid advancement of technology, it has become possible to track consumers' behavior on the Internet. Consequently, marketers can tailor advertisements to align with consumers' needs and characteristics. However, this raises concerns about consumer privacy. Some researchers have concentrated on the positive aspects of Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA), while others have delved into its negative implications. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impact of cognitive and affective factors on consumers' behavioral responses to OBA. It aims to explore both the positive and negative facets of this advertising approach.
This survey research adopts an applied approach and targets Internet users from Tehran Universities as the study population. A total of 385 questionnaires were distributed among the sample members. To identify individuals with experience in viewing online behavioral advertisements, a screening question was placed at the beginning of the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 299 reported having seen OBA in the past six months during the survey, and subsequently answered the questions. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS 26, while Smart PLS3 software was employed for inferential statistics.
The findings reveal that perceived personalization positively influences perceived relevance, diminishes perceived intrusiveness, and enhances behavioral responses to advertisements. Additionally, information control demonstrates a negative impact on perceived intrusiveness and privacy concerns, while persuasion knowledge exhibits a positive correlation with privacy concerns. Consumers possessing high levels of persuasion knowledge express increased privacy concerns regarding OBA. Mitigating privacy concerns leads to improved attitudes toward OBA, subsequently enhancing behavioral responses to advertisements. However, privacy concerns do not directly impact behavioral responses to advertisements. Moreover, perceived relevance and perceived intrusiveness serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived personalization and behavioral responses to advertisements.
OBA, due to its relevance to the consumer's needs and the reduction of perceived intrusiveness, increases the response to advertisements (a direct and indirect positive mechanism, respectively). This method of advertising is a suitable approach to increase the response rate to online advertisements. Allowing users to control their information will reduce perceived intrusiveness and privacy concerns. Improving consumers' persuasion knowledge by emphasizing the benefits of OBA will reduce their privacy concerns and improve their attitudes toward it, ultimately increasing behavioral responses to the advertisements. In contrast to some past research, privacy concerns do not affect behavioral responses; this may be because of the nature of OBA, which uses different data compared to personalized advertising. Also, OBA is known as a double-edged sword, but the effect of the negative side (privacy concern) is less than the positive side (perceived relevance). This research will contribute to the literature on personalized advertising, specifically online behavioral advertising, and include practical implications for marketers, brand managers, and advertising agencies.


Main Subjects

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