شناسایی مدل‌های ذهنی مدیران شرکت‌های صنایع غذایی از موانع توسعه صادرات (نمونه‌کاوی: مدیران شرکت‌های لبنی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اداری، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران.

4 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اداری، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: علی‌رغم تأثیر شایان توجه مدل‌های ذهنی روی تصمیم‌گیری‌ مدیران، فقط تعداد انگشت‌شماری از پژوهش‌های بازاریابی مدل ذهنی مدیران این حوزه را بررسی کرده و تعداد به‌مراتب کمتری به تأیید اهمیت این پدیده پرداخته‌اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی مدل‌های ذهنی مدیران شرکت‌های لبنی در رابطه با موانع شروع یا گسترش صادرات است.
روش: این پژوهش بر مبنای هدف، از نوع کاربردی و بر اساس گردآوری اطلاعات توصیفی است. مدیران ارشد در حوزه بازرگانی، فروش و صادرات شرکت‌های فعال در صنعت لبنی، جامعه آماری پژوهش را تشکیل داده‌اند و برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته مبتنی بر رویکرد پدیدارشناسی و فنون فرافکنی استفاده شده است.با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری نظری، مصاحبه با مدیران ارشد دوازده شرکت لبنی تا حد اشباع ادامه پیدا کرد. برای اطمینان از روایی و پایایی داده‌ها از روش بازنگری توسط شرکت‌کنندگان و روش چندجانبه‌نگری از طریق مصاحبه با گروه‌های متفاوت مشارکت‌کنندگان استفاده شد و برای تحلیل داده‌ها از تحلیل تم و نرم‌افزار10Maxqdaاستفاده شده است.
یافته‌ها: شش مدل ذهنی شناسایی‌شده در این پژوهش عبارت‌اند از: مدل‌ ذهنی بازارگرا، حاکمیت‌گرا، منبع‌گرا، سودگرا، زیرساخت‌گرا و نهادگرا. بر اساس نتایج، مدل‌های ذهنی بازارگرا، حاکمیت‌گرا و منبع‌گرا برجسته‌ترین مدل‌های ذهنی در این پژوهش هستند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نداشتن مزیت رقابتی و جایگاه ضعیف بازاریابی در شرکت‌های ایرانی، از موانع مهم توسعه صادرات محصول‌های لبنی در بازارهای فرامنطقه‌ای است. از دیدگاه مشارکت‌کنندگان پژوهش، دولت از طریق وضع قوانین روشن و ثابت، تأمین منابع مالی مستقیم و غیرمستقیم، وضع معافیت‌های گمرکی و مالیاتی و اعطای جایزه صادراتی، می‌تواند بستر مناسبی برای توسعه صادرات شرکت‌های ایرانی فراهم آورد و بسیاری از موانع مطرح‌شده در مدل‌های ذهنی شش‌گانه را رفع کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Mental Models of Managers of Food Industry Companies Regarding Barriers to Export Development (Case Study: Managers of Dairy Product Companies)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Hemmati 1
  • Davood Feiz 2
  • Adel Azar 3
  • Azim Zarei 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Business Management, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
2 Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
3 Prof., Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management and Economic, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Prof., Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Administrative Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective
This study aims to integrate the two areas of study, namely mental models and perceived barriers to export. Based on the theory of mental models, the present study seeks to increase the richness of the perception of the experiences and perceived meanings of managers of Iranian dairy product companies on the barriers to export development. On the other hand, identifying managers’ mental model and determining the most important barriers to export in each mental model can be considered a guideline for export policymakers to plan according to the existing mental models and provide solutions for export development.
 
Methodology
This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of data collection. The statistical population of this research includes chief executives in business, sales and export departments of dairy product companies. Semi-structured interviews based on phenomenological approaches and projective techniques have been used to collect data. Using the theoretical sampling method, chief managers of twelve dairy product companies were the interviewed in order to reach saturation. To ensure data validity and reliability, revie participants’ reviews and multidisciplinary approaches were used through interviews with different groups of participants. Theme analysis and Maxqda 10 software were used to analyze the data.
 
Findings
The ultimate model of the study included the following six mental models of barriers to export: 1) market-oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "not being brand-centered", "poor marketing status" and "lack of competitive advantage". This mental model has been the most prevalent mental model among the managers; 2) government-oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "poor governmental support", "poor governmental policymaking " and "poor governmental interaction "; 3) resource-oriented model: this mental model consists of four sub-themes of "poor company updating", "production capability", "financing problem" and "lack of government lobbies"; 4) profit-oriented model: this mental model consists of three sub-themes of "profit-oriented attitude", "lack of global export prospects", and "undesirable image of the country"; 5) infrastructure oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "economic instability", "poor transport infrastructure" and "country backwardness"; and 6) institutional-oriented model: this mental model focuses on companies’ conflict with Iranian organizations in the process of export and includes two sub-themes of "administrative complexities of the export process", and "tax burden and customs tariffs".
 
Conclusion
Given the importance of the role of mental models and managerial perceptions in decision making, including decisions about the company’s export activities, one must first identify the managers’ mental model of export in order to have a proper understanding and analysis of export behaviors. In terms of frequency, market-oriented, government-oriented, and resource-oriented mental models were identified as the three leading mental models in dairy product companies, respectively. According to the managers participating in this study, Iranian dairy products do not have a competitive advantage in inter-regional markets in terms of quality, price, product variety, and packaging. Although changing the attitudes of managers and investors is necessary to expand the company’s export activities, it is not enough to help grow and develop the export of dairy products in international markets. The government-oriented mental model, identified as the second dominant mindset in dairy product companies, highlights the important role of government policy making and support in creating or removing export barriers. In this mental model, the government must provide an appropriate platform for export development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Mental model
  • Export Barriers
  • Export Development
  • Thematic analysis
  • International Marketing
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