پژوهشی آمیخته در زمینه روابط فروشنده-خریدار در بازارهای صنعتی (B2B) مورد مطالعه زنجیره تامین صنعت نفت ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه مدیریت، دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد ، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت، دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد ، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: هدف از این پژوهش ارائه الگوی روابط فروشنده-خریدار در بازارهای صنعتی با رویکرد خریدار در زنجیره تامین صنعت نفت ایران می‌باشد. در این پژوهش با توجه به رقابت فزاینده در بازارهای صنعتی(B2B)،  روابط فروشنده-خریدار به عنوان الگویی مناسب برای ایجاد و حفظ رابطه بلند‌‌مدت با مشتریان مد‌نظر قرار گرفته است.
روش: این مطالعه پژوهشی آمیخته همزمان است؛ که در یک فاز توسط پژوهش کیفی مضمون‌ها و مولفه‌های روابط فروشنده-خریدار شناسایی و توسط روش کد‌‌گذاری، مقوله‌های فرعی و اصلی مرتبط با روابط فروشنده-خریدار ارائه گردید؛ و در فاز دیگر و در مرحله کمی پس از مطالعه ادبیات پژوهش و  با توجه به نتایج پژوهش کیفی، مدل نظری پژوهش توسعه یافت و در پایان با استفاده از روش معادلات ساختاری (حداقل مربعات جزئی) مدل پژوهش ارزیابی گردید.
یافته‌ها:: نتایج تاثیر مثبت کیفیت رابطه فروشنده-خریدار بر ارزش ادراک شده مشتریان و همچنین تاثیر کیفیت رابطه بر وفاداری ادراکی را نشان داد. کیفیت رابطه از مسیر وفاداری نگرشی بر وفاداری رفتاری تاثیر مثبت دارد. از طرف دیگر تاثیر مثبت ارزش ادراک شده مشتری بر وفاداری (نگرشی و رفتاری) توسط نتایج این پژوهش حمایت گردید. ولی تاثیر مستقیم کیفیت روابط بر وفاداری رفتاری (قصد خرید مجدد) خریداران صنعتی حمایت نگردید. همچنین تاثیر منفی متغیر تعدیل‌گر تلاطم بازار بر رابطه کیفیت رابطه و ارزش ادراک شده مشتری حمایت گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: پژوهش‌های کمی، به موضوع بازاریابی صنعتی خصوصاً روابط فروشنده و خریدار در بازارهای صنعتی پرداخته‌اند. این پژوهش با ارائه تصویری بومی از ابعاد کیفیت روابط فروشنده و خریدار و ابعاد ارزش ادراک شده مشتری و  بررسی تاثیر این متغیرها بر وفاداری نگرشی و وفاداری رفتاری (قصد خرید مجدد) خریدار صنعتی دارای نوآوری می‌باشد. در این پژوهش برای نخستین بار تلاطم بازار به عنوان متغیر تعدیل‌گر در روابط فروشنده و خریدار شناسایی و ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Mixed Study on Buyer-Seller Relationships in Industrial Markets (B2B): Case Study of Iran Oil Supply Chain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Mohammad Javad Rejali 1
  • Ali Sanayei 2
  • Majid Mohammad shafiee 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate in Business Management, Faculty of Administrative and Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Administrative and Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
3 Associate Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Administrative and Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective: The purpose of this research is to further develop a model of buyer-seller relationship in industrial markets based on the buyer’s approach in supply chain of Iran oil industry. Given the increasing competition in industrial markets (B2B), the buyer- seller relationship is considered as an appropriate model for establishing and maintaining a long-term relationship with customers.
Methodology: This mixed research is applied, fundamental, and developmental in terms of orientation. And it is a descriptive survey in terms of data collection. The qualitative phase of the present study concerns with the identification of themes and components of the buyer-seller relationship; it also includes the development of the primary and secondary parameters accordingly. In the quantitative phase of the present study and based on the literature review and results of the qualitative research, the conceptual model was developed, and then evaluated using structural equation method (partial least squares). The statistical population for the qualitative phase includes managers and purchasing experts working in companies affiliated with the National Iranian Oil Company who had at least ten years of work experience in the field of purchasing with a bachelor's degree or higher. At this stage, the snowball sampling method was used. In other words, the interviewees were asked to introduce other experts in the industry.
Findings: The results indicated the positive impact of the quality of buyer-seller relationship on the customer’s perceived value and attitudinal loyalty. Moreover, the relationship quality has a positive effect on behavioral loyalty (intention to repurchase) through the mediating rooe of attitudinal loyalty. On the other hand, the positive effect of the customer’s perceived value on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty was supported by the findings of this study. However, the direct effect of relationship quality on behavioral loyalty was not supported among industrial customers. Besdies, the negative effect of market turbulence (mediating variable) on the association between relationship quality and customer’s perceived value was also confirmed.
Conclusion: A few studies have investigated industrial marketing, especially the area of buyer-seller relationships in industrial markets. The present study contributes to the literature by developing a local model of buyer-seller relationship, its dimensions, as well as the customer’s perceived value among Iranian industrial buyers. The innovative contribution of the present study refers to the empirical examination of the impact of relationship quality and the customer’s perceived value on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Furthermore, market turbulence was identified and examined as an intervening variable in the buyer–seller relationship model for the first time in this study

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Buyer-Seller relationship
  • Customer’s Perceived Value
  • Relationship marketing
  • Structural Equation Modeling
ابراهیمی، عبد الحمید و عالی، صمد (1395). بررسی تأثیر کیفیت رابطه بر پاسخ‏‌های رفتاری مشتریان در مراحل مختلف چرخۀ عمر رابطۀ مشتری (مطالعۀ موردی: بانک کشاورزی تبریز).  مدیریت بازرگانی، 8(3)، 503-528.‎
داوری، علی؛ رضازاده، آرش (1393). مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری بـا نـرم افزار PLS. تهـران: سـازمان انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی.
عالی، صمد؛ ابراهیمی، عبدالحمید؛ اصلانپور علمداری، ندا (1398). تحلیل مشارکت مشتری در خلق ارزش طی چرخه عمر رابطه. مدیریت بازرگانی، (11)1 ، 105 – 124
 عزیزی، شهریار، قنبرزاده میاندهی، رضا و فخارمنش، سینا (1391). ارزیابی تاثیر شخصیت برند بر وفاداری نگرشی و رفتاری مشتریان به برند‌هایپر استار. پژوهش‌های مدیریت در ایران. 16(4)، 123- 105.
کریمی سارمه، زینب. اسماعیل پور، رضا و مباشر امینی، رمضانعلی (1398). بررسی تأثیر دروغ سبز در مسئولیت اجتماعی شرکت بر قصد خرید محصول‌های سبز با میانجیگری رضایت سبز و ریسک ادراک‌شده سبز. مدیریت بازرگانی، 11(4)، 850-868.‎
معصوم زاده زواره، اسماعیل. ناصحی‌فر، وحید (1389). ممیزی بازاریابی صنعتی مطالعه‌ی موردی مجموعه شرکت‌های قطعه ساز گروه بهمن. مدیریت بازرگانی، 2(4)، 145-164.‎
نداف، مهدی؛ درزیان عزیزی، عبدالهادی؛ تیرانداز، سحر (1397). بررسی نقش میانجی ابعاد کیفیت رابطه در تأثیر شخصی سازی خدمات و قدردانی مشتری بر ارزش ویژه برند. مدیریت بازرگانی، 10(1)، 207-228.‎
 
 
References
Aali, S., Ibrahimi, A., Aslanpour Alamdari, N. (2019). Analysis of Customer Engagement in Creating Value at Different Stages of the Relationship Life Cycle. Journal of Business Management, 11(1), 105-124. (in Persian)
Abrar, M., Biag, S. A., Shabbir, R., & Hussain, I. (2019). Role of CRM Practices in Bank’s performance: Moderating role of Market Turbulence. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 13(2).
Almomani, H. Q. (2019). Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Evidence from Jordan. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 18(2), 108-123.
Amoako, G. K. (2019). Relationship Marketing, Orientation, Brand Equity and Firm Value: The Mediating Role of Customer Value—An Emerging Market Perspective. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 18(4), 280-308.
Anisimova, T. (2007). The effects of corporate brand attributes on attitudinal and behavioural consumer loyalty. Journal of consumer marketing, 24(7), 395-405.
Athanasopoulou, P. (2009). Relationship quality: a critical literature review and research agenda. European Journal of Marketing, 43(5/6), 583-610.
Azizi S, Ghanbarzadeh miyandehi R, Fakharmanesh S. (2013) Evaluation of the Effect of Brand Personality on the Costumer’s Attitudinal and Behavioral Loyalty: The Case of HYPERSTAR Brand. IQBQ; 16 (4), 105-124. (in Persian)
Badawi, N. and Battor, M. (2020), "Do social capital and relationship quality matter to the key account management effectiveness?", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(1), 134-149.
Ball, D., Simões Coelho, P., & Machás, A. (2004). The role of communication and trust in explaining customer loyalty: An extension to the ECSI model. European journal of marketing, 38(9/10), 1272-1293.
Barclay, D., Higgins, C., & Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to casual modeling: Personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies, 2(2), 285-309.
Boles, J. S., Johnson, J. T., & Barksdale Jr, H. C. (2000). How salespeople build quality relationships:: A replication and extension. Journal of Business Research, 48(1), 75-81.
Bourassa, M. A., Cunningham, P. H., Ashworth, L., & Handelman, J. (2018). Respect in buyer/seller relationships. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 35(2), 198-213.
Bowman, S. (2017). The knowledge, skills and competencies for effective public affairs practice: a UK study (Doctoral dissertation, University of West London).
Čater, T., & Čater, B. (2010). Product and relationship quality influence on customer commitment and loyalty in B2B manufacturing relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1321-1333.
Chen, M. F., & Mau, L. H. (2009). The impacts of ethical sales behaviour on customer loyalty in the life insurance industry. The Service Industries Journal, 29(1), 59-74.
Chen, T. Y., Chang, P. L., & Chang, H. S. (2005). Price, brand cues, and banking customer value. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23(3), 273-291.
Chen, Z., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2003). A conceptual model of perceived customer value in ecommerce: A preliminary investigation. Psychology & Marketing, 20(4), 323-347.
Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21.
Crosby, L. A., Evans, K. R., & Cowles, D.  (1990). Relationship quality in services selling: an interpersonal influence perspective. The Journal of Marketing, (54)3, 68-81.
Davari, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2015). Structural equation modeling software with PLS. Scientific Information Database (SID), Tehran. P. 248. (in Persian)
Donada, C., Mothe, C., Nogatchewsky, G., & de Campos Ribeiro, G. (2019). The respective effects of virtues and inter-organizational management control systems on relationship quality and performance: Virtues win. Journal of Business Ethics, 154(1), 211-228.
Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P. H., & Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer-seller relationships. The Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11-27.
Ebrahimi, H., Aali, S. (2016). Effects of relationship quality on Customer behavioral responses at different stages of the customer relationship life cycle: case study of Tabriz Kheshavarzy Bank. Business Management, 8(3), 503-528. (in Persian)
El-Adly, M. I. (2019). Modelling the relationship between hotel perceived value, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 322-332.
El-Adly, M. I., & Eid, R. (2015). Measuring the perceived value of malls in a non-Western context: the case of the UAE. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 43(9), 849-869.
Finch, D., O’Reilly, N., Hillenbrand, C., & Abeza, G. (2015). Standing on the shoulders of giants: An examination of the interdisciplinary foundation of relationship marketing. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 14(3), 171-196.
Flint, D. J., Woodruff, R. B., & Gardial, S. F.  (2002). Exploring the phenomenon of customers’ desired value change in a business-to-business context. Journal of Marketing, 66(4), 102-117.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Garepasha, A., Aali, S., Zendeh, A. B., & Iranzadeh, S. (2020). Dynamics of Online Relationship Marketing: Relationship Quality and Customer Loyalty in Iranian banks. Review of Business Management22(1), 140-162.
Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Kumar, N. (1998). Generalizations about trust in marketing channel relationships using meta-analysis. International Journal of Research in marketing, 15(3), 223-248.
Griffith, D. A., & Harvey, M. G. (2001). A resource perspective of global dynamic capabilities. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3), 597-606.
Grimmer, L., Miles, M. P., & Grimmer, M. (2016). The performance advantage of business planning for small and social retail enterprises in an economically disadvantaged region. European Journal of International Management10(4), 403-421.
Grönroos, C.  (2004). The relationship marketing process: communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(2), 99-113.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
Hauser, J. R., & Urban, G. L.  (1986). The value priority hypotheses for consumer budget plans. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(4), 446-462.
Hennig-Thurau, T., & Klee, A. (1997). The impact of customer satisfaction and relationship quality on customer retention: A critical reassessment and model development. Psychology & marketing, 14(8), 737-764.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In R. R. Sinkovics, & P. N. Ghauri (Eds.), New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Hohenschwert, L., & Geiger, S. (2015). Interpersonal influence strategies in complex B2B sales and the socio-cognitive construction of relationship value. Industrial Marketing Management, 49(1), 139-150.
Holmlund, M. (2008). A definition, model, and empirical analysis of business-to-business relationship quality. International journal of service industry management, 19(1), 32-62.
Howat, G., & Assaker, G. (2013). The hierarchical effects of perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: Empirical results from public, outdoor aquatic centres in Australia. Sport Management Review, 16(3), 268-284.
Huang, M., Cai, F., Tsang, A. S., & Zhou, N. (2011). Making your online voice loud: the critical role of WOM information. European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8), 1277-1297.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies, strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204.
Itani, O. S., Kassar, A. N., & Loureiro, S. M. C. (2019). Value get, value give: The relationships among perceived value, relationship quality, customer engagement, and value consciousness. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 80(1), 78-90.
Jiang, Z., Shiu, E., Henneberg, S., & Naude, P. (2016). Relationship quality in business to business relationships—Reviewing the current literatures and proposing a new measurement model. Psychology & Marketing, 33(4), 297-313.
Johnson, J. L., Sohi, R. S., & Grewal, R.  (2004). The role of relational knowledge stores in interfirm partnering. Journal of Marketing, 68(3), 21-36.
José Sanzo, M., Leticia Santos, M., Alvarez, L. I., & Vázquez, R. (2007). The effect of a buyer's market orientation on attitudinal loyalty toward a supplier: is dependence a moderator?. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(4), 267-283.
Kaltcheva, V.D., Patino, A., Laric, M.V., Pitta, D.A., Imparato, N. (2014). Customers' relational models as determinants of customer engagement value. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 23(1), 55-61.
Kang, G.D. & Jeffrey, J. (2004). Service quality diminutions: an examination of Gronroos service quality model. Managing Service Quality, 14(4), 266-277.
Karimi Sareme Z, Esmaeilpour R, Mobasher Amini R. (2019). Investigating The Effect of Green wash in Corporate Social Responsibility on Purchasing Intention for Green Products: The Mediating Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Risk. Business Management, 11(4), 850-868. (in Persian)
Kumar, N., Scheer, L. K., & Steenkamp, J. B. E. (1995). The effects of supplier fairness on vulnerable resellers. Journal of marketing research, 32(1), 54-65.
Lahiri, S., & Kedia, B. L. (2011). Determining quality of business-to-business relationships: A study of Indian IT-enabled service providers. European Management Journal, 29(1), 11-24.
Lindgreen, A., Vanhamme, J., van Raaij, E. M., & Johnston, W. J. (2013). Go configure: The mix of purchasing practices to choose for your supply base. California Management Review, 55(2), 72-96.
Liu, Y., Li, Y., Shi, L. H., & Liu, T. (2017). Knowledge transfer in buyer-supplier relationships: The role of transactional and relational governance mechanisms. Journal of Business Research, 78(1), 285-293.
Masoomzadeh Zavareh, A., Nasehifar, V. (2010). Industrial Marketing Audit In Automobile Part Manufactures Companies of BAHMAN Group. Business Management, 2(4), 145-164. (in Persian)
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D.  (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.
Moss, E., Rousseau, D., Parent, S., St-Laurent, D. & Saintonge, J. (1998). Correlates of attachment at school age: Material reported stress, mother-child interaction, and behavior problem, Child Development, 69(5), 1390-1405.
Nadaf M, Darzian Azizi A, Tirandaz S. (2019).  Studying the Mediating Role of Relationship Quality Dimensions between Service Personalization and Customer Gratitude Impact on Brand Equity (Case Study: Irancell Company). Business Management, 10(1), 207-228. (in Persian)
Newell, S. J., Wu, B., Leingpibul, D., & Jiang, Y. (2016). The importance of corporate and salesperson expertise and trust in building loyal business-to-business relationships in China. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(2), 160-173.
Nunally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory, 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of marketing research, 17(4), 460-469.
Paananen, A., & Seppänen, M. (2013). Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives. Intangible Capital, 9(3), 708-729.
Palmatier, R. W., Jarvis, C. B., Bechkoff, J. R., & Kardes, F. R.  (2009). The role of customer gratitude in relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 1-18.
Pandit, A., & Vilches-Montero, S. (2016). Are reward cards just a business deal? The role of calculative versus emotional card commitment in driving store loyalty. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 355-360.
Poon, P., Albaum, G., & Yin, C. Y. (2017). Exploring risks, advantages and interpersonal trust in buyer-salesperson relationships in direct selling in a non-western country. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 45(3), 328-342.
Rauyruen, P., & Miller, K. E. (2007). Relationship quality as a predictor of B2B customer loyalty. Journal of business research, 60(1), 21-31.
Revellino, S., & Mouritsen, J. (2015). Accounting as an engine: The performativity of calculative practices and the dynamics of innovation. Management Accounting Research, 28, 31-49.
Roberts, K., Varki, S., & Brodie, R. (2003). Measuring the quality of relationships in consumer services: an empirical study. European Journal of marketing, 37(1/2), 169-196.
Sakas, D. P., Drivas, I. C., & Kavoura, A. (2015). Simulation model for commercial success of customer behaviour. Procedia Economics and Finance, 24, 598-605.
Salem Khalifa, A. (2004), "Customer value: a review of recent literature and an integrative configuration", Management Decision, 42)5(, 645-666.
Sharma, D., & Ranga, M. (2014). Mobile customer relationship management-A competitive tool. EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies, 4(7), 37-42.
Sheth, J. N., & Parvatiyar, A. (1995). The evolution of relationship marketing. International business review, 4(4), 397-418.
Skarmeas, D., Katsikeas, C. S., Spyropoulou, S., & Salehi-Sangari, E. (2008). Market and supplier characteristics driving distributor relationship quality in international marketing channels of industrial products. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(1), 23-36.
Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C.  (2000). Intelligence generation and superior customer value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 120.
Smith, J. B. (1998). Buyer–seller relationships: similarity, relationship management, and quality. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1), 3-21.
Song, Y., Su, Q., Liu, Q., & Wang, T. (2012). Impact of business relationship functions on relationship quality and buyer's performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 27(4), 286-298.
Sriram, V., & Stump, R. (2004). Information technology investments in purchasing: an empirical investigation of communications, relationship and performance outcomes. Omega, 32(1), 41-55.
Tanford, S., & Jung, S. (2017). Festival attributes and perceptions: A meta-analysis of relationships with satisfaction and loyalty. Tourism Management, 61, 209-220.
Tenenhaus, M., Amato, S. & Esposito Vinzi, V. (2004). A global goodness of fit index for PLS structural equation modeling, in: Proceedings of the XLII SIS Scientific Meeting, 739-742.
Walsh, M. F., Winterich, K. P., & Mittal, V. (2011). How re‐designing angular logos to be rounded shapes brand attitude: consumer brand commitment and self‐construal. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 28(6), 438-447
Wang, G., Dou, W., Zhu, W., & Zhou, N. (2015). The effects of firm capabilities on external collaboration and performance: The moderating role of market turbulence. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1928-1936.
Wang, Y., Hampson, D. and Han, M. (2020), "Relationship closeness paradox: contingency analysis in B2B sales", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing,Vol.ahead-of-print No.ahead-of-print.
Wetzels, M., Odekeken-Schroder, G. & Van Oppen, C. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for accessing hierarchical construct models: Guidelines and empirical illustrations, MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 177.
Wolter, J. S., Bock, D., Smith, J. S., & Cronin Jr, J. J. (2017). Creating ultimate customer loyalty through loyalty conviction and customer-company identification. Journal of Retailing, 93(4), 458-476.
Woo, K. S., & Ennew, C. T. (2004). Business-to-business relationship quality: an IMP interaction-based conceptualization and measurement. European journal of marketing, 38(9/10), 1252-1271.
Xu, J. D., Cenfetelli, R. T., & Aquino, K. (2016). Do different kinds of trust matter? An examination of the three trusting beliefs on satisfaction and purchase behavior in the buyer–seller context. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 25(1), 15-31.
Youcef, S., Djelloul, C., & Abderrezak, B. (2015). The Impact of Customer Satisfaction for their Loyalty with the Existence of Trust and Commitment as Intermediate Variables: The Case Study of the Algerian Mobilis Telecom. Management, 5(1), 1-5.
Yu, T. W., & Tung, F. C. (2013). Investigating effects of relationship marketing types in life insurers in Taiwan. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 23(2), 111-130.
Zeithaml, V. A.  (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. The Journal of Marketing, 2-22.
Zhang, J. Z., Watson IV, G. F., Palmatier, R. W., & Dant, R. P. (2016). Dynamic relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 80(5), 53-75.
Zubac, A., Hubbard, G., & Johnson, L. W. (2010). The RBV and value creation: a managerial perspective. European Business Review, 22(5), 515-538.