ارائه الگوی مشارکت هم‎آفرینانه در بازار گردشگری

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری تخصصی مدیریت بازرگانی، پردیس بین‎المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران، تهران،ایران

2 استاد گروه مدیریت، دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران،تهران،ایران

3 استاد گروه مدیریت،دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی مدیریت رسانه، پردیس بین‎المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: بین صنایع خدماتی، صنعت گردشگری جزء آن دسته از محصولاتی است که به‎دلیل ماهیت درآمدزایی، از جایگاه ویژه‌ای در بازارهای جهانی برخوردار است. استراتژی هم‌آفرینی با تأثیرگذاری بر تولید خدمات گردشگری مطابق با ایده مشتریان، شرکت‌ها را به سوی تولید محصولات رقابتی نوآورانه و گردشگرها را به سوی خرید بسته‌های جذاب هدایت می‌کند. پژوهش‌های پیشین به‎طور عمده از عواملی استفاده کرده‎اند که بر مبنای انواع مشارکت‌های هم‌آفرینی تبیین نشده‌اند.
روش: در مقاله پیش‌رو و در قالب پژوهش بنیادی، انواع مشارکت‌های هم‌آفرینانه در بازار گردشگری با روش گراندد تئوری مطالعه شده است.
یافته‎ها: پرسش‌های نیمه‎ساختار یافته‎ای، برگرفته از ترکیب دو الگوی اصلی هم‌آفرینی و مطابق با پرسش پژوهش، مطرح شد و مصاحبه‌های عمیقی با دو گروه گردشگران و خبرگان در دو منطقه گردشگری جهان انجام گرفت. پاسخ‎دهنده‌ها از طریق نمونه‌گیری غیرتصادفی تئوریک انتخاب شدند و روی مصاحبه‌ها کدگذاری و تحلیل انجام شد.
نتیجه‎گیری: نتایج نشان داد دو نوع مشارکت آشکار و پنهان وجود دارد که با هدف به اشتراک‌گذاری و آفرینش تجربه‌ها و دانش، مشارکت مصرف‌کنندگان را در فعالیت‌های هم‌آفرینی تسهیل می‎کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Proposing a Model of Co-Creative Participation in Tourism Market

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Irani 1
  • Ali Akbar Farhangi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Mehrgan 3
  • Sepideh Irani 4
1 Ph.D., Department of Business Management & Marketing, Kish International Campus of Tehran University, Kish, Iran
2 Prof., Department of Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Prof., Department of Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Media Management, Kish International Campus of Tehran University, Kish, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective
There is a growing interest in the customers’ innovation in the realm of tourism studies. In the new global business ecosystem where individuals, organizations, governments and economy work together as an integrated network, we need a new innovation model. The model should be set at a level in which internal, external, cooperative and co-creative ideas can converge to create organizational values and sharing those values. Considering the active participation of the regional opponents in the world tourism industry, there is a need to an efficient multi-faceted model for co creative innovation in order to encourage the use of reasonable strategies in tourism industry in Iran which can lead to the development of tourism. One can lower the risk and decrease the costs of exploiting tourism programs through identifying different partnerships affective in the co-creative process. Hence, the main concern of the present study is to identify the consumers’ cooperation types in co-creative activities and their probable effects on tourism industry.
 
Methodology
The present study is a fundamental qualitative research. Grounded theory was used to extract theory out of the data. Deep semi-structured interviews, observation and documentary research were used as data collection procedures. The two groups of tourists and experts were interviewed in Iran and Europe tourism sites. The researchers used library and internet resources suh as books, articles, and case studies to complete the theoretical basis and used interview, asking for tourists and experts’ opinions to determine the desirable criteria. A sample size of 8 individuals was selected through non-random theoric sampling. Max QDE software was used to analyze the data and form theories while the interviews are all coded (open, pivotal, and selective) and then the subjects were extracted and joined together.
 
Findings
The researchers reported two types of partnership for the customers namely, explicit and implicit and two partnership objectives for the tourists. Customers’ partnership in co-creative tourism activities are classified into four categories of: explicit-cocreative, explicit-sharing, implicit-cocreative, and implicit-sharing.
 
Conclusion
The results showed that tourists can take part in cocreative activities within tourism organizations and companies in four different partnership types. Cocreative partnership characteristic allow customers’ involvement during the production time of the tourism product. The objective of explicit cocreative partnership is to create experiences or knowledge for tourists which includes brainstorming and co-thinking. Comparing the information of the customers among the companies at the same level can lead to creation of explicit ideas. Tourism companies, in explicit sharing, attempt to attract explicit partnership in order to share experiences or knowledge. Therefore, tourists are informed of their involvement in experience or knowledge sharing activities. Such partnership includes interview and sharing of ideas. Tourism companies furtively attract tourists’ partnership in implicit cocreative partnership in order to create experiences or knowledge. Cultural and impalpable programs are some instances of such partnership type. Finally, regarding implicit sharing partnership, we can consider visual programs and sharing activities among the characteristic of such partnership type.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Co-creation
  • Experience
  • participation
  • Sharing
  • Tourism
References

Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211.

Andersson, T. D. (2007). The tourist in the experience economy. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1), 46-58.

Benkler, Y. (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Binkhorst, E., Den Dekker, T. (2009). Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(2/3), 311-327.

Braun, V., Clarke V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Cohen, E. (1979). A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology, 13(2), 179-201.

Comor, E. (2010). Contextualizing and Critiquing the Fantastic Prosumer: Power, Alienation and Hegemony. Critical Sociology, 37(3), 309-327.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of Play in Work and Games. Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco CA.

Cutler, S. Q., Carmichael, B. (2010). The dimensions of the tourist experience. In Morgan M., Lugosi P., Ritchie J. R. B. (eds), The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives, Channel View Publications: Bristol, PP. 3-26.

Darmer, P., Sundbo, J. (2008). Introduction to experience creation. In Sundbo J., Darmer P., (eds), Creating Experiences in the Experience Economy, 12, 1-12.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.

Dutta, S., Lanvin, B., Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2015). The Global Innovation Index 2015-Effective Innovation Policies for Development (GII). Printed and bound: World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Ebrahimzadeh I., Sakhavar N., Taghizadeh Z. (2013). A Comparative Study of Health Tourism Potentials in Iran and India. Journal of Subcontinent Researches, 5 (15), 51-78.

Ebrahimzadeh I., Yari M. (2013). Comparative Study of Functions Affecting the Behavioral Patterns of Tourists in Iran and America’s Tourism Marketing Plan Utilizing SWOT Model. Journal of Service Science and Management, 6, 20-30.

Economist Intelligence Unit, The digital company (2013). How technology will empower the customer, 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/ technology/assets/digital _co_1.pdf (3.11.12).

Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Geunhee, L. (2012). Modeling Consumers' Co-creation in Tourism Innovation. PhD Dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Hof, R. D. (2005). The Power of Us: Mass Collaboration on the Internet is Shaking Up Business. Business Week online.

Holbrook, M. B., Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The Experiential Aspects of Consumption - Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132-140.

Jennings, G., Lee, Y. S., Ayling, A., Lunny, B., Cater, C., Ollenburg, C. (2009). Quality tourism experiences: reviews, reflections, research agendas. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(2-3), 294-310.

Kambil, A., Friesen, G. B., Sundaram, A. (1999). Co-Creation: A New Source of Value. Accenture’s Outlook Magazine, 38-43.

Kim, J. H., Ritchie, J. R. B., McCormick, B. (2011). Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 12-25.

Lawer, C. (2006). Eight styles of firm-customer knowledge co-creation. An OMC Group Insight Paper, No.4.

Leadbeater, C. (2008). We-think: The Power of Mass Creativity. Profile Books, London.

Lee, S. M., Olson, D. L. & Trimi, S. (2012). Co-innovation: convergenomics, collaboration, and co-creation for organizational values. Management Decision, 50(5), 817-831.

Litvin, S.W., Kar, G.H., Goldsmith, R.E. (2001). Travel Innovativeness and Self-Image Congruity. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 10(4), 33-45.

MacCannell, D. (1973). Staged authenticity: arrangements of social space in tourist settings. The American Journal of Sociology, 79(3), 589-603.

Manzini, E. (2007). Design, social innovation and sustainable ways of living: Creative communities and diffused social enterprise in the transition towards a sustainable network society. (DRAFT DIS-Indaco, Politecnico di Milano)

Morgan, M., Lugosi, P., Ritchie, J.R.B. (2010). The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives. Channel View: Bristol.

Mossberg, L. (2003). Att skapa upplevelser: från OK till WOW, Studentliteratur: Lund.

Nambisan, P., Nambisan, S. (2009). Models of consumer value cocreation in health care. Health Care Management Review, 34, 344-354.

Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., Ladkin, A. (2014). A Typology of Technology-Enhanced Tourism Experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16, 340-350.

Official Website of Iran's Ministry of Economic Affairs and Financ (2016). Iran's 1404 Perspective Document in Development of the Heritage and Tourism Section. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL?contextual=default&locations=IR&start=2008.

Official Website of The World Bank (2017). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT. ARVL?contextual=default&locations=IR&start=2008

Oliver, K., Samakh E., Heckmann P. (2007). Rebuilding Lego, Brick by Brick. Retrieved from: http://www.strategy-business.com/article/07306?pg=all (6.8.12).

Pater, M. (2009). Co-creation's 5 guiding principles - or.... what is successful co-creation made of ? (White Paper), Fronteer Strategy, Amsterdam, 1-9.

Pine, J. B., Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The Experience Economy: Work is a Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Harvard Business School: Cambridge.

Pluijm, L. (2010). Realizing co-creation. Master thesis Strategic Management, Tilburg University, Netherlands, 1-76.

Prahalad, C. K., Ramaswamy, V. (2004a). Co-creation experiences: the next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5-14.

Prahalad, C. K., Ramaswamy, V. (2004b). The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. MA: Harvard Business, School Press: Boston.

Ramaswamy, V. (2009). Co-creation of value – towards an expanded paradigm of value creation. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 26(6), 11–17.

Ramaswamy V., Gouillart F., (2010). The Power of Co-Creation: Build It with Them to Boost Growth, Productivity, and Profits. Free Press, New York.

Riney, D. (2010). Online co-creation communities: a new framework for engagement. Retrieved from: http://www.brandlogic.com/assets/Brandlogic_ OnlineCoCreation.pdf (3.11.12).

Ritzer, G. (2009). Correcting an Historical Error. Keynote address at the Conference on Prosumption, Frankfurt, Germany.

Ritzer, G., Jurgenson, N. (2010). Production, Consumption, Prosumption: The nature of capitalism in the age of the digital ‘prosumer’. Journal of Consumer Culture, 10(1), 13-36 (1469-5405).

Sanders E. B. N. (2006). Design Serving People. Copenhagen Cumulus working papers, University of Art and Design, Helsinki.

Sanders, E.B.N., Stappers, P. J. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. Co Design, 4(1), 5-18.

Sayyed, M. R. G., Mansoori, M. S., Jaybhaye, R. G. (2013). SWOT analysis of Tandooreh National Park (NE Iran) for sustainable ecotourism. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 3(4), 296-305.

Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave. New York, NY: William Morrow.

Tung, V.W.S, Ritchie, J.R.B., (2011). Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1367-1386.

Vollens, M. (2011). Winning & Failing Co-Creation Platforms: A benchmark study focused on Co-Creation & eMobility, Board of Innovation: 1-42. Website Address: www.boardofinnovation.com.

Wong, D. (2010). Nike ID Makes $100 M+: Co-Creation Isn’t Just a Trend. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/danny-wong/nikeid-makes-100 mcocrea_ b_652214.html (6.8.12).

World Economic Forum. (2015). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. Geneva, Switzerland.