الگوی بازاریابی هنرهای تجسمی مدرن و معاصر در بستر نهادی: مطالعه داده‎بنیاد بازار ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری،دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی،تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه نقاشی، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی دانشگاه هنر،تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت بازرگانی گرایش بازاریابی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران.ایران

چکیده

هدف: بهره‎مندی از فرصت بازار در حال رشد تجارت آثار هنری مدرن و معاصر تجسمی ایران، مستلزم داشتن رویکردی درباره هدایت هنرمندان در این بازار نوظهور در جهت ماندگاری و تعیین نقش بازاریابی برای بازیگران آن است. از این رو، هدف از نگارش این مقاله، ارائه الگوی بازاریابی از دیدگاه نهادی برای بازار هنر ایران است.
روش: این پژوهش کیفی ـ اکتشافی بر مبنای رویکرد پارادایمی اشتراوس و کوربین در روش نظریه­پردازی داده‎بنیاد با استفاده از 49 مصاحبه با متخصصان بازاریابی هنر انجام شده است.
یافته‎ها: تحلیل داده­های مبین آن است که دنیای نهادی هنر همچون بستری برای بازار هنر و ارزش­های پایه­ای آن، محرک تغییر در نقش­های بازیگران شبکه کسب‎وکار نهادی هنر است.
نتیجه‎گیری: برهم­کنش­های بازیگران شبکه تجارت آثار هنرهای تجسمی به عنوان پدیده محوری، تحت تأثیر شرایط مداخله­گر محیط کلان و شرایط زمینه­ای هم­شکلی­های نهادی است. این مقوله­ها موجب کنش و برهم­کنش­های بازاریابی هنر و آمیزه آن، تحقیقات بازاریابی هنر، بخش­بندی، هدف­گذاری و موضع­گیری در بازار هنر می­شوند. در نهایت، ارزش­های اقتصادی هنر، فرایند رشد، تأیید، ماندگاری و اعتباریابی نهادی هنرمند در بازار هنر از آنها حاصل می­شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Marketing Model for Modern and Contemporary Visual Arts in Institutional Context: A Grounded Theory Study on Iran Market

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Mohammadian 1
  • Hamed Dehghanan 2
  • Behnam Kamrani 3
  • Yasaman Giyahi 4
1 Associate Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Department of Painting, University of Art, Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective
Art business takes place in an institutional context and is highly reliant on the cultural, political, and social content of a society. Because of a variety of reasons such as the profitability of art industry in foreign market, low academic marketing knowledge, the opposing ideas to art economy according to its players, the high rate of graduate students in art disciplines and the number of art universities in Iran compared to the middle east, and finally limited and practical attention to art marketing in the world; it is necessary to conduct such a research. The present study aims to identify which marketing model can be used if we consider art business (markets, modern and contemporary art auctions) in an institutional and value-oriented approach.
 
Methodology
This study is fundamental in nature and is considered as a qualitative-exploratory research. This grounded-theory based research was conducted in 2017. Artists, art university professors, art researchers, media, art auctions, brokers, private institutions, investors, art collectors, art galleries, art exhibitors, art museums, art experts, art managers and policy makers, publishers, insurers, talent managers were among the participants of this study. The data were collected using deep semi-structured interviews. A sample size of 49 was interviewed for this purpose.
 
 
Findings
The main issue in this research was the participants' concerns. Some factors such as centrality, relevance, repetition, time needed for saturation are all applied to consider an issue as the main concern of a study. Since art marketing and related activities players was the main theme of the interviews, other issues and even other trivial matters were in line accordingly. While coding, the issues of "art institutional business network players and their important roles" were considered as the main theme of the paradigm modeling and the other issues were theoretically linked to it. Based on the evaluation and assessments, secondary issues of "art market", "art world nature", "art institutions", "art world basic values", "Iran art market and its characteristics" and "institutional context of art world and artistic experiences" were identified as causal conditions.
 
Conclusion
An artist is meaningful and can live forever in the minds of people based on 6 general tendencies. These tendencies are inter-related and each plays its own role in certain stages. Therefore, "art market", "art world nature", "art institutions", "art world basic values", "Iran art market and its characteristics" and "institutional context of art world and artistic experiences" are among those causal factors that can affect the players in art institutional business and the major roles they play in that area. Main roles played by "art institutional business network members" which are the major roles they play in this market along with the relationships among them can shape the art market and marketing issues. "Macro Environments, whether economic, social-cultural or political-geopolitical", are considered as intervening conditions that can positively or negatively affect the players in art institutional business network and the roles they play. The players in art institutional business network and the roles they play can be affected by "compulsory, imitation, and normative similarities and also artistic norms" as contextual and specific conditions. The relationships among "visual arts marketing”, "blended visual arts marketing", "art market studies", "classification, planning and positioning", and "improvement and optimization strategies" affect art market, artists’ prolong fame, and the value of his art. The application of the proposed strategies will result in the formation of "art market related values" and also "enhancement, approval, durability, and institutional validation" in intervening and contextual conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arts Marketing Mix
  • Visual Arts Marketing in Iran
  • Institutional Context
  • Paradigm Model of Marketing
  • Grounded theory
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