تحلیل محتوای نظریه‎های مبتنی بر همکاری کسب‌وکارها با تأکید بر کارکردهای شبکه‎سازی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مدیریت و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی،دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استاد، گروه مدیریت و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج،ایران

چکیده

هدف: شبکه‎سازی، نوعی استراتژی سازمانی برای کنشگران شبکه به‎شمار می‎رود و کارکردهای متعددی دارد. این کارکردها که با محوریت جریان منابع و اطلاعات آغاز می‎شوند، در نهایت به منافع اقتصادی برای عناصر شبکه منجر خواهند شد. بر این مبنا، نظریه‎های متعددی با همکاری‎های کسب‌وکار در قالب شبکه‎ها و پیوندهای چندجانبه توجه کرده‎اند که این توجه برای درک کارکردها و مزایای شبکه حائز اهمیت است. در این راستا، هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر تبیین کارکردهای شبکه‎سازی از زاویه ‎دید شش نظریه شامل هزینه مبادله، ادغام و اکتساب، وابستگی منابع، نمایندگی، محوریت منابع و اتحادهای استراتژیک بود.
روش: این مطالعه با رویکردی استقرایی و با استفاده از تحلیل محتوای کیفی هدایت شد. با بهره‎گیری از تکنیک‎های نمونه‎گیری گلوله برفی و نظری، 41 عنوان مقاله با محوریت نظریه‎های نام‌برده انتخاب و به روش کیفی تحلیل شدند.
یافته‎ها: در رویکرد تحلیل محتوا، پس از انتخاب واحد تحلیل و واحدهای معنایی، مضامین تبیین‎کننده کارکردهای شبکه‎سازی تحت عنوان «کسب منابع و بهبود مزیت رقابتی»، «توسعه قدرت کنترلی و بهبود ساختار مدیریتی» و «تعدیل ظرفیت‎ها و متنوع‎سازی» در شرکت‎ها شناسایی شدند. نتایج نشان داد، برخی از نظریه‎ها در خصوص ارتباط و شبکه، دیدگاه اقتصادیِ صرف داشتند، در حالی که برخی دیگر با نگاهی چند بعدی به موضوع مد نظر پرداخته و مقولاتی همچون تعاملات و تنوع کنشگران را نیز مورد توجه قرار داده بودند. به‌طور کلی، نتایج نشان داد که نظریه‌های ادغام و اکتساب و وابستگی منابع به‌طور مناسب‌تری مضامین تبیین‌کننده کارکردهای شبکه‌سازی را توضیح می‌دهند.
نتیجه‎گیری: دیدگاه ادغام و اکتساب و نیز اتحادهای استراتژیک از جمله نظریه‎هایی محسوب می‎شوند که به نقش‎های ارتباطی و اقتصادی شبکه‎ها به‎صورت آمیخته و متوازن توجه کرده‎اند. به‎طور کلی، تحقیق حاضر برای انتخاب مقالات مورد مطالعه، به‎طور چشمگیری بر محتوا و بنیان‎های آن در تبیین نظریه‎های نام‌برده متمرکز شد و بر این اساس، دیدگاه‎های انتقادی مربوط به این نظریه‎ها مورد توجه قرار نگرفت؛ از این رو، لازم است در مطالعات آتی رویکردهای انتقادی در این باره مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Content Analysis of Business Cooperatives Theories Emphasizing Network Functions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rasool Lavaei Adaryani 1
  • Khalil Kalantari 2
  • Ali Asadi 3
  • Amir Alambeigi 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Agricultural Management and Development, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Prof., Department of Agricultural Management and Development, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Prof., Department of Agricultural Management and Development, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective
As an organizational strategy, networking has a variety of functions for network activists. Such functions begin with the flow of resources and information and finally result in economic benefit for the network members. Accordingly, numerous theories considered business cooperatives in the form of networks and multiple links which is of great importance in perception of network functions and benefits. In fact, companies seek inter-firm cooperatives in order to be able to obtain knowledge resources outside the firm, new technologies or markets, and probable benefits from the joint research and development activities. In addition, companies try to reduce the risks of conducting activities beyond the capabilities of a single firm. Existing theoretical and empirical opinions in the area of networking show that sharing knowledge, improving performance, sharing resources, building trust, clarity, and promoting market status are among networking functions for organizations and companies. Moreover, some theories investigate organizational relationships from economic point of view highlighting resource sharing. Meanwhile, view point and analysis provided by each theory (as a result of the combination of resources and inter-organizational relationships) is different from the others. In this respect, the main objective of the present study is to determine the networking functions from the perspective of six theories including Transaction Cost, Merge and Acquisition (M & A), Resource Dependence Theory, Agency Theory, Resource-Based Theory, and Strategic Alliance.
 
Methodology
The present study is a qualitative content analysis study based on inductive approach. Using snowball and theoretical sampling techniques, 41 articles pertinent to the target theories were selected from 25 journals and analyzed based on qualitative method. Data analysis was initially started by identifying meaning units, and then, by choosing meaning units, coding, forming of subcategories and categories, and extraction of the themes were pursued. To ensure validity and reliability, triangulation and investigator triangulation techniques were used.
 
Findings
Within content analysis approach, following selection of the analysis unit and meaning units, explanatory themes including “obtaining the resources and improving the competitive advantage”, “developing control capabilities and improving management structure”, and “adjusting capacities and diversification” in the firms were identified. The first theme indicates that in order to reduce their costs and obtain competitive advantage in production and marketing, firms tend to apply networking. This theme is highlighted within merger and acquisition viewpoint, whereas agency viewpoint does not consider such a theme. It is also noteworthy that resource dependent theory partly focuses on this theme. The second theme indicates that within networking procedure, firms can enhance their power on scarce resources and reduce the competitiveness through convergent management with network activists. Such a procedure will lead to governance development within the network. “Reduction in competitiveness and governance development” are of utmost importance in this theme. In fact, this theme is applicable within three theories of dependence, strategic alliance, and agency theory. In general, resource dependence theory is much more involved in this theme compared to other theories. The third theme reflects the fact that there are some extra capabilities in some organizations and firms which are intact in production and service providing processes. On the other hand, some firms lack necessary capabilities to retain their own part in the market. Therefore, it is crucial to balance such capabilities through the analysis of inside conditions and inter-relationships between the firms. It means that the activists tend to evaluate their capabilities and their competitors and active allies in the market to build and diversify their relationships. Accordingly, diversification is considered as the main by-product of balancing capabilities. Diversification occurs in two different levels of activist and resources. In fact, organizations and firms attempting to gain new resources, to find other institutional allies so as to ensure future capacities and to reduce uncertainties by balancing capabilities. This theme includes diversification through networking, relationship analysis, and internal-external capabilities analysis which are equally shared among different theories. In general, the results showed that some theories of relationship and networking are merely economic-based, while others are multi-dimensional encompassing issues of transactions and activist diversity. Moreover, merge and acquisition theory and resource dependence theory can explain networking functions more appropriately.
 
 
 
Conclusion
Theory of merger and acquisition and theory of strategic allies have considered the interactive and economic roles of the networks in a mixed and balanced way. In addition, agency theory is not focused on organizational communications and networking in comparison with other theories, and does not work well in explanation of networking functions. Generally, this study significantly focused on the content and principles of explanation and synthesis of selected theories in selection of the scientific papers and did not consider related critical approaches. Hence, it is suggested to investigate critical approaches in future studies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Network functions
  • Cooperation theories
  • Organizational network
  • Content analysis
  • Business
حمیدی‌زاده، محمدرضا؛ زارع احمدآبادی، حبیب؛ سنگبر، محمدعلی (1393). تجزیه و تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر موفقیت شراکت‌های راهبردی با رویکرد پویایی‌های سیستم (مورد مطالعه: خوشه صنعتی کاشی و سرامیک استان یزد). مجله مدیریت بازرگانی، 6(3)، 517 – 534.

حیدری، علی؛ والی‌پور، علیرضا (1396). پژوهش‌های مدیریت استراتژیک در ایران: مروری بر آثار انتشاریافته در نشریه‌های علمی ـ پژوهشی داخلی طی سال‌های 1380 تا 1393. مجله مدیریت بازرگانی، 9(1)، 83 – 102.

رحمان‌سرشت، حسین؛ باشکوه، محمد؛ پهلوانی قمی، معصومه (1388). عوامل مؤثر در موفقیت همکاری‌های بین‌المللی (مطالعه موردی مرکز تحقیقات ایران خودرو). مجله مدیریت بازرگانی، 1(3)، 55- 70.

شاه‌طهماسبی، اسماعیل؛ حسینی، سید حمید خداداد؛ کردنائیچ، اسداله؛ آزاد ارمکی، محمدتقی (1393). بررسی تأثیر شبکه‌های کسب‌وکار بر مزیت رقابتی با تبیین نقش قابلیت ایجاد قابلیت‌ها، مورد مطالعه صنعت ساختمان. مجله مدیریت بازرگانی، 6(1)، 107- 124.

 

References

Balestrin, A., Vargas, L. M., & Fayard, P. (2008). Knowledge creation in small-firm network. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(2), 94-106.

Barney, J. B. (1996). The resource-based theory of the firm. Organization science, 7(5), 469-469.

Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 2, 8-14.

Brass, D. J., Galaskiewicz, J., Greve, H. R., & Tsai, W. (2004). Taking stock of networks and organizations: A multilevel perspective. Academy of management journal, 47(6), 795-817.

Braun, D., & Guston, D. H. (2003). Principal-agent theory and research policy: an introduction. Science and Public Policy, 30(5), 302-308.

Capó-Vicedo, J., Mula, J., & Capó, J. (2011). A social network-based organizational model for improving knowledge management in supply chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 16(4), 284-293.

Caves, R. E. (1980). Industrial organization, corporate strategy and structure. Journal of economic literature, 18(1), 64-92.

Conner, K. R. (1991). A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: do we have a new theory of the firm? Journal of management, 17(1), 121-154.

Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. J. (1995). Growing the entrepreneurial firm: networking for international market development. European journal of marketing, 29(7), 49-61.

Daily, C., Dalton, D., & Cannella, J. (2003). Corporate Governance: Decades Of Dialogue & Data. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 371-382.

Das, T. K., & Teng, B.S. (1998). Between trust and control: Developing confidence in partner cooperation in alliances. Academy of management review, 23(3), 491-512.

Derashri, P. D. (2016). A comparative study of financial performance before and after mergers and acquisitions of the selected indian companies.

Devlin, G., & Bleackley, M. (1988). Strategic alliances-guidelines for success. Long range planning, 21(5), 18-23.

Dewick, P., & Miozzo, M. (2004). Networks and innovation: sustainable technologies in Scottish social housing. R&D Management, 34(3), 323-333.

Diez, J. R. (2002). Metropolitan innovation systems: a comparison between Barcelona, Stockholm, and Vienna. International regional science review, 25(1), 63-85.

Erlingsson, C., & Brysiewicz, P. (2017). A hands-on guide to doing content analysis. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 7(3), 93-99.

Fischer, M. M., & Varga, A. (2002). Technological innovation and interfirm cooperation: an exploratory analysis using survey data from manufacturing firms in the metropolitan region of Vienna. International Journal of Technology Management, 24(7-8), 724-742.

Fridlund, B., & Hildingh, C. (2000). Health and qualitative analysis methods. In B. Fridlund & C. Hildingh (Eds.), Qualitative research, methods in the service of health: Studentlitteratur.

Fuller-Love, N., & Thomas, E. (2004). Networks in small manufacturing firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(2), 244-253.

Gates, S. (1993). Strategic alliances: Guidelines for successful management. Issue 1028 of Conference Board report.

Gaughan, P. A. (2010). Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructurings: John Wiley & Sons.

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.

Hagedoorn, J. (2002). Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960. Research policy, 31(4), 477-492.

Haleblian, J., Devers, C. E., McNamara, G., Carpenter, M. A., & Davison, R. B. (2009). Taking stock of what we know about mergers and acquisitions: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 35(3), 469-502.

Hamidizadeh, M. R., Zareh Ahmadabadi, H., & Sangbor, M. A. (2014).  Analyzing of critical success factor of strategic alliances (Case study: Tile & ceramic industrial cluster of Yazd(. Journal of Business Management, 6(3), 517-537. (in Persian)

Haunschild, P. R. (1993). Interorganizational imitation: The impact of interlocks on corporate acquisition activity. Administrative science quarterly, 38(4), 564-592.

Heidari, A., & Valipour, A. (2017). Strategic Management Research in Iran: An Overview of Published Works in Domestic Scientific Journals during 2002 to 2015. Journal of Business Management, 9(1), 83-102. (in Persian)

Hudnurkar, M., & Rathod, U. (2017). Collaborative practices with suppliers in Indian manufacturing multinationals. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, 10(2), 206-231.

Huerta, T. R., Casebeer, A., & Vanderplaat, M. (2006). Using networks to enhance health services delivery: perspectives, paradoxes and propositions. HealthcarePapers, 7(2), 10-26.

Jensen, M. (1989). Eclipse of the public corporation. Available in: https://hbr.org/1989/09/ eclipse-of-the-public-corporation.

Jensen, M., & Meckling, W. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs & ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), 305-360.

Krippendorff, K. (2012). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage.

Lan, L., & Heracleous, L. (2010). Rethinking Agency Theory: the View from Law. Academy of Management Review, 35(2), 294-314.

Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of born globals: an evolutionary process? International business review, 6(6), 561-583.

Mancinelli, S., & Mazzanti, M. (2009). Innovation, networking and complementarity: Evidence on SME performances for a local economic system in North-Eastern Italy. The Annals of Regional Science, 43(3), 567-597.

Min, S., Roath, A. S., Daugherty, P. J., Genchev, S. E., Chen, H., Arndt, A. D., & Glenn Richey, R. (2005). Supply chain collaboration: what's happening? The international journal of logistics management, 16(2), 237-256.

Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth ofthe firm. New York: Sharpe.

Pfeffer, J. (1976). Beyond management and the worker: The institutional function of management. Academy of Management Review, 1(2), 36-46.

Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. Stanford University Press.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: Principles and methods. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Popp, J., MacKean, G. L., Casebeer, A., Milward, H. B., & Lindstrom, R. R. (2014). Inter-organizational networks: A critical review of the literature to Inform practice. Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community Research.

Rahmanseresht, H., Bashokouh, M., & Pahlevani Ghomi, M. (2010). Factors Affecting in Succession of International Collaborations (Case study of Iran Khodro's research center). Journal of Business Management, 1(3), 55-70. (in Persian)

Richards, L., & Morse, J. M. (2012). Readme first for a user's guide to qualitative methods. Sage.

Roberts, A., Wallace, W., & Moles, P. (2016). Mergers and Acquisitions. Edinburgh Business School, Heriot-Watt University, 1-28.

Rumelt, R. P., & Lamb, R. (1997). Towards a strategic theory of the firm. Resources, firms, and strategies: A reader in the resource-based perspective, 131-145.

Shahtahmasbi, E., Khodadad Hoseini, S. H., Kordna’eej, A., & Azad Armaki, M. T. (2014). Investigating the Impact of Business Networks on Competitive Advantage by Explaining the Role of Capability of Building Capabilities Case Study: Construction Industry. Journal of Business Management, 6(1), 107-124. (in Persian)

Sharma, D. D., & Blomstermo, A. (2003). The internationalization process of born globals: a network view. International business review, 12(6), 739-753.

Smith, T. R. (2011). Agency theory and its consequences: A study of the unintended effect of agency theory on risk and morality. Master thesis, Copenhagen Business School,

Song, H., Yu, K., Ganguly, A., & Turson, R. (2016). Supply chain network, information sharing and SME credit quality. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(4), 740-758.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic management journal, 18(7), 509-533.

Varadarajan, P. R., & Cunningham, M. H. (1995). Strategic alliances: a synthesis of conceptual foundations. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 23(4), 282.

Vega, D. C., & Keenan, R. J. (2014). Transaction cost theory of the firm and community forestry enterprises. Forest Policy and Economics, 42, 1-7.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource‐based view of the firm. Strategic management journal, 5(2), 171-180.

Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and hierarchies: analysis and antitrust implications: a study in the economics of internal organization. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496220.

Yin, X., & Shanley, M. (2008). Industry determinants of the “merger versus alliance” decision. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 473-491.

Yoshino, M. Y., & Rangan, S. (1995). Strategic alliances: An entrepreneurial approach to globalization. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Zahra, S. A. (2005). A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 20-28.

Zajac, E. J., & Olsen, C. P. (1993). From transaction cost to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of interorganizational strategies. Journal of management studies, 30(1), 131-145.

Zeng, S. X., Xie, X. M., & Tam, C. M. (2010). Relationship between cooperation networks and innovation performance of SMEs. Technovation, 30(3), 181-194.