بررسی عصب‌شناختی مغز رهبران سازمانی در فعالیت مرتبط با تفکر ‌‌استراتژیک: چگونه برای مطالعه و آزمایش با ابزار الکتروآنسفالوگرافی‎کمی، تکالیف شناختی طراحی‌کنیم؟

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم اعصاب‎شناختی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‎شناسی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

4 استاد، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: طی دو دهه گذشته، مدل‎های مفهومی متعددی برای تفکر استراتژیک مطرح شده، ولی ابزارهای چندانی برای سنجش و مطالعه تفکر استراتژیک در سطح فردی ارائه نشده است. روش‌های علم عصب‌شناختی، همان‌طور که طی چند دهه گذشته برای مطالعه و سنجش تفکر خلاق از آنها استفاده شده، می‌توانند ما را در مطالعه تفکر استراتژیک یاری دهند.
روش: پژوهش حاضر با مرور ادبیات موضوع تفکر استراتژیک و پژوهش‎های انجام‌شده درباره خلاقیت در زمینه EEG، چگونگی طراحی تکالیف شناختی برای مطالعه تفکر استراتژیک را تشریح می‌کند، سپس به‌عنوان مطالعه‌ای مقدماتی در یک پژوهش آزمایشگاهی، تفکر استراتژیک را بررسی کرده و نتایج آن را ارائه می‌دهد. نمونه پژوهش حاضر، 10 نفر از مدیران و مدیران میانی از یک مجتمع آموزشی غیردولتی هستند که به‌صورت در دسترس انتخاب شده‌ و در دو موقعیت آرامش و تفکر استراتژیک با ابزار الکتروآنسفالوگرافی‌ کمی (QEEG) تصویربرداری مغزی شده‌اند.
یافته‎ها: نتایج نشان می‌دهد که تغییرات شدت موج آلفا در تمامی نواحی قشر مغز در مقایسه با تغییرات سایر امواج، معنادار بود. تغییرات معنادار در شدت مطلق امواج آلفا با نتایج مشاهده‌شده در آزمایش‌های مرتبط با خلاقیت، قابل مقایسه است. همچنین تغییرات شدت امواج آلفا (Hz8-12) در تکالیف شناختی PT، TT و ST با یکدیگر مقایسه شد.
نتیجه‎گیری: تکلیف شناختی TT برای مطالعه تفکر استراتژیک در زمینه EEG مناسب‌تر است، زیرا تغییرات شدت امواج آلفا حین انجام این تکلیف شناختی در مقایسه با دو تکلیف شناختی دیگر، افزایش بیشتری را نشان می‌داد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cognitive Neurological Investigation of Organizational Leaders’ Brain in the Strategic Thinking Activity: How to Design Cognitive Tasks for a Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) Based Approach?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Shirzad 1
  • Mohammad Abooyee Ardakan 2
  • Mohammad Ali Nazari 3
  • Arian Gholipour 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
4 Prof., Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective
Over the past two decades, several conceptual models have been proposed for strategic thinking, but few tools have been developed to measure and study strategic thinking at the individual level. Neuropsychological techniques, as they have been used to study and measure the creative thinking over the past few decades, can help us in studying strategic thinking. In this paper, at first, conceptual models and different dimensions of strategic thinking and its measurement methods are reviewed. Similar researches in the field of creativity conducted using neurological approaches and brain imaging tools can be considered as a good guideline to help doing such a research. To study the function of the brain, it is necessary for the person, under investigation, to be given a cognitive assignment in order to think about it. While thinking about that assignment, their brain function can be studied, so the characteristics of cognitive assignments are described for the study of strategic thinking, and cognitive tasks for such studies are proposed to be selected within the field of electroencephalography. Finally, the results of a laboratory study are reviewed and the results will be analyzed.
 
Methodology
The present research is a part of a comprehensive fundamental research. This research is descriptive and exploratory in nature and a pilot project was designed to collect and analyze the data. Due to the nature of the subject, the present research is a type of pilot project in which the dependent variable (brain wave patterns) has been studied after providing an independent variable (strategic thinking). The present study describes how to design cognitive assignments to study strategic thinking by reviewing the literature on strategic thinking and research on creativity in electroencephalography, and then, as a preliminary study in a laboratory research, examines strategic thinking and presents its results. A sample size of ten managers and middle managers from a nongovernmental educational center has been selected based on availability factors and brain imaging was done within two states of relaxation and strategic thinking using electroencephalographic tools.
 
Findings
The results show that changes in alpha wave intensity were significant in all regions of the cortex compared to other waves. Significant changes in the absolute intensity of alpha waves are comparable with the observed results in creativity-related experiments. In addition, changes in the intensity of alpha waves (12-8 Hz) were compared with each other in PT, TT, and ST cognitive assignments. The results indicate that changes in the intensity of alpha waves were significant in comparison with changes in other brain wave. During the day when we are awake, brain imaging by electroencephalography shows different types of brain electric waves at a time. These waves are classified from the lowest frequency (highest wavelength) to the highest frequency (shortest wavelength) as Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma respectively. Alpha waves are in the range of 8 to 13 Hz and also the changes in the intensity of alpha waves (12 Hz) were compared within the three PT, TT, and ST cognitive assignments. Based on the paired T-test results, there is no significant difference in the alpha waves intensity variation between the cognitive tasks of ST and TT. But, there is a significant difference in the alpha waves intensity variation between the cognitive tasks of ST and PT.
 
Conclusion
The human brain should be able to create a large amount of alpha waves for creative inspiration. Creative people can use alpha-generated waves to solve the problems they face. Those lacking creativity, when faced with a problem, cannot produce more alpha waves, and consequently they cannot have creative ideas to solve problems. The proper level of alpha waves leads to relaxation on free time and enjoying the environment, optimal performance, less anxiety, stronger immune system, positive thinking, mind and body integrity, intuition, inner-thinking, emotional balance, euphoria, inner awareness and increased hormonal secretion of Serotonin. The results show that PT cognitive assignment is not suitable for studying strategic thinking. It seems that the cognitive role of TT is more appropriate for the study of strategic thinking in the field of electroencephalography, because the changes in the alpha intensity during this cognitive assignment showed a greater increase compared to the other two cognitive tasks. With regard to ST cognitive assignment, one can use this cognitive assignment if they follow the correct guidelines.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategic thinking
  • Cognitive task
  • Creative thinking
  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • QEEG
  • Alpha brainwaves
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