مقایسه فرایند شناختی مردان و زنان هنگام خرید (نمونه پژوهشی: بررسی تأثیر برند با استفاده از دستگاه ردیاب چشم)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه بیوشیمی ، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه سائوپاولو، برزیل.

چکیده

هدف: بررسی تفاوت شناختی ناشی از فرایند دیداری در زنان و مردان در زمان تصمیم‌گیری برای خرید یک نوشیدنی در مواجهه با برندهای معروف و ساختگی.
روش: ابزار استفاده‌شده در این پژوهش، دستگاه ردیاب چشم است. این پژوهش بر تأثیر برند تمرکز کرده و لوگوی برند، به‌عنوان نماد دیداری بررسی شده است، ابتدا داده‌های موجود به‌کمک نرم‌افزار توبی پیش‌پردازش شدند، سپس خروجی اکسل داده‌ها در نرم‌افزار SPSS تحلیل شد. در اجرای این پژوهش 53 نفر از دانشجویان کارشناسی دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران با گروه سنی بین 19 تا 25 سال شرکت کردند که 51 درصد از این افراد زن بودند.
یافته‌ها: بر اساس نتایج، زنان و مردان هنگام تصمیم‌گیری برای خرید، الگوهای دیداری متفاوتی دارند و در نتیجه فرایندهای شناختی متفاوتی از خود نشان می‌دهند؛ به‌طوری که مدت زمان توجه در مردان بیشتر از زنان است، از این رو، فرایند شناختی در زنان در زمان کوتاه‌تری رخ می‌دهد. اما 65 درصد از افرادی که هنگام مواجهه با برند معروف، انتخاب پیش فرض خود را به نفع کالای دارای برند معروف تغییر داده‌اند، زن بودند، بنابراین زنان در مقایسه با مردان، به برند علاقه بیشتری نشان می‌دهند.
نتیجهگیری: علاوه بر اینکه در فرایند شناختی زنان و مردان هنگام خرید تفاوت معناداری مشاهده شد، انتخاب‌های نهایی صورت‌گرفته نشان داد که این تفاوت فقط به فرایند دیداری محدود نیست و تصمیم‌گیری نهایی در دو جنسیت نیز تفاوت معناداری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Cognitive Process in Men and Women While Shopping (Case Study: Investigating the Impact of Brand Using Eye Tracker)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mona Salarifar 1
  • Younos Vakil Alroaia 2
  • Abolfazl Danaei 2
  • Gholamhossein Riazi 3
  • Janaina De Moura Engracia Giraldi 4
1 PhD Candidate, Department of Business Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.
3 Prof., Department of Biochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Prof., Department of Business Management, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
چکیده [English]

Objective
Brand interest varies among men and women. Brand and brand reputation are more prominent among women, and it is stated that there is a difference in the degree of brand dependence in men and women. Since there is a significant difference in the cognitive process among men and women, focusing on product selection in the purchasing process, this study aims to investigate whether there is a significant difference between men and women in the final decision. Therefore, the customers’ decisions regarding the brands are examined using eye tracker and based on gender differences in the present study.
 
Methodology
Eye tracker has been used as the main instrument in this research. In addition, the brand logo was examined as the visual symbol in the present study. The available data were first pre-processed using Tobii software and the Excel data output was analyzed using SPSS software. A sample of 53 undergraduate students at the Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, with the age range of 19 to 25, participated in this study. Besides, 51% of the participants were women.
 
Findings
The analysis of the questionnaire and the recorded results from the eye tracker device shows that 75% of the participants have changed their opinion toward the brand. And also, 65% of them were women. The average duration of fixation in men is longer compared to women, and men spend more time looking at brands. The results showed that the average duration of fixation in men who choose a well-known brand from their non-selected beverage group is higher than the choice for women. Moreover, men have spent more time looking at brand logos. The average duration of fixation is also almost equal in men and women while chosing a fake brand from their favorite group while making a decision.
 
Conclusion
As a result of this research, it can be said that the brand and its popularity have a significant impact on a person’s decision making when buying beverage. There is a significant difference in eye movement between men and women regarding famous brands. The duration of fixation over a brand is fewer in women, so women have a shorter cognitive process than men. The impact of the brand varies between men and women, and women are more affected by the brand. According to the results of this research, more women were willing to change their minds about the brand, so women are more likely to be attracted by the well-known brands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cognitive process
  • Eye-movement
  • Eye tracker
  • Duration of fixation
  • Area Of Interest (AOI)
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