تبیین نقش شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها در کارایی با میانجیگری تحولات فناورانه و بانکداری دیجیتال

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری، مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

10.22059/jibm.2020.296288.3753

چکیده

هدف: امروزه، بخش بانکی دستخوش تغییر ساختار و رویکردهای سازمان‌دهی فرایندهای تجاری شده است. انتظارهای مشتریان، تحولات فناوری، الزامات قوانین و مقررات و بحران در اقتصاد، ضرورتی برای تشکیل و تحول در نظام بانکی است. با در نظر گرفتن این عوامل، بهتر است بانک‌های سنتی، با فناوری‌های مالی، شراکت راهبردی تشکیل دهند تا بتوانند میزان کارایی خود را در بازار رقابتی فعلی افزایش دهند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین نقش شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها در کارایی با میانجیگری تحولات فناورانه و بانکداری دیجیتال است.
روش: جهت‌گیری پژوهش، کاربردی و از نظر هدف، توصیفی است و در آن، برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، از روش پیمایشی و برای تحلیل داده‌ها، از روش هم‌بستگی استفاده شده است.
یافته‌ها: بر اساس یافته‌های پژوهش، نقش شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها (944/19 T:)، تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (340/27 T:)، بانکداری دیجیتال (374/72 T:)، نقش تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (439/4 T:) و بانکداری دیجیتال 
(161/8 T:) بر کارایی تأیید شد. از سوی دیگر، نقش غیرمستقیم متغیرهای میانجی تحولات فناورانه دیجیتال (362/121 T:) و بانکداری دیجیتال (644/590 T:) میان شراکت راهبردی بانک تجارت با فین‌تک‌ها و کارایی به تأیید رسید.
نتیجه‌گیری: تمام هفت فرضیه اصلی و دوازده فرضیه فرعی تأیید شدند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که شراکت راهبردی بانک‌ها با فناوری‌های نوین مالی یک انتخاب نیست، بلکه برای همه بانک‌ها، ضرورتی است که به کارایی آنها منجر می‌شود و در حوزه‌های تحولات فناوری دیجیتال و بانکداری دیجیتال برای بانک‌ها مزیت زیادی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Role of Tejarat Bank's Strategic Alliance with FinTechs in Efficiency Mediated by Technological Developments and Digital Banking

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Soltanee 1
  • dariush tahmasebi Aghbolaghi 2
1 Assistant Prof., Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Farabi Campus University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective 
This study seeks to determine whether the strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech affects their efficiency. And also, does the mediating role of technological change and digital banking variables between the strategic alliances of Tejarat bank with Fintech affect efficiency?
 
Methodology 
Orientation of applied research and in terms of purpose is descriptive that has used survey method to collect data and correlation method to analyze data. Data analysis was performed using SPSS tools and Smart PLS software.
 
Findings
The findings showed that the role of strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech with single fin on efficiency (T: 19/944), digital technology developments (T: 27/340) and digital banking (T: 72/374) and the role of digital technology developments (T: 4/439) Digital Banking 
(T: 8/161) confirmed efficiency. The indirect role of the mediating variables of digital technological developments (T: 121/362) and digital banking (T: 590/644) between the strategic alliance of Tejarat bank with Fintech and efficiency was also confirmed.
 
Conclusion
Strategic alliance between Tejarat bank and financial technologies will significantly reduce the costs of services and increase the efficiency of the bank so that communication with new financial technologies can lead to competitive advantage and control of the service market. The majority of the banks in Iran are operating based on traditional procedures and customers are looking for easy and affordable banking operations, so the alliance between the bank and Fin Techs has been able to gain customer satisfaction and generate revenue. The related activities will subsequently improve the banking efficiency. In recent years, the increasing use of digital technologies has had a major impact on many sectors, especially the banking sector. This rapid change is called the digital technological change. Therefore, digitization of Tejarat bank is one of the most important concerns of bank executives and managers. According to this research, Tejarat bank can provide digital transformation with strategic and bilateral unity between themselves and different areas of financial technology. Given that Tejarat Bank is one of the local banks that have provided the necessary platform for digital transformation, this process is possible through the sharing of emerging technologies such as Fintech and single Fintech startups. Digital transformation provides opportunities for non-traditional service delivery with the driving force that creates financial capacity in the financial services markets; these opportunities are either consolidated or in many cases can help achieve the desired result. Digital Banking is a new concept of e-banking that aims to enrich and improve online services along with the use of new digital technologies such as mobile and financial social networks. This has led to lower operating costs and reduced errors, market expansion and increased bank revenue sources. The change in the nature of the physical branches of the Tejarat bank is considered as a key point in the role of the strategic alliance between Tejarat bank and modern financial technologies on digital banking. In other words, the physical branches of a Tejarat bank will not be eliminated, but they will apply some changes in the business model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategic alliance
  • Digital technology developments
  • Digital banking
  • Efficiency
  • Fintech
آقاجانی، طهمورث؛ رضازاده، آرش؛ شوقی، بهزاد (1393). بررسی تأثیر شراکت‌‌ استراتژیک بر عملکرد سازمانی (مورد مطالعه: شراکت‌‌ بین نورد آلومینیوم اراک و آلومینیوم پارس). نشریه پژوهش‌های مدیریت راهبردی، 20(55)، 9-34.
اصلانی مناف، داود؛ براتی، اکرم (1396). بررسی تأثیر فناوری اطلاعات بر بهبود کارایی سازمان (مورد مطالعه: شعب منتخب بانک اقتصاد نوین در شهر تهران). هفتمین همایش سالانه بانکداری الکترونیک و نظام‌های پرداخت، صص 1-14.
تی. جی. مکس، برایان؛ وس، پپین؛ برگرس، کوین (1396). مدیریت شراکت‌های استراتژیک. (گروسی مختارزاده، اجاقلو، ابن یامینی، مترجمان) تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
تاجیک باغخواص، حمید (1393). مدلی برای خلق ارزش و تخصیص ارزش از طریق شراکت‌های استراتژیک در موسسات خدمات مالی (در صنعت بیمه و بانک). رساله دکتری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
حسینی، سید فرهنگ(1396). فناوری نوین مالی. تهران: نوید مهر.
حمیدی‎زاده، محمدرضا؛ زارع احمدآبادی، حبیب؛ سنگبر، محمدعلی (1393). تجزیه ‌و تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر موفقیت شراکت‌های راهبردی با رویکرد پویایی‌های سیستم (مورد مطالعه: خوشه صنعتی کاشی و سرامیک استان یزد). مدیریت بازرگانی، 6(4)، 517-534.
دولتی، سیامک (1397). طراحی مدل تعامل با شرکت‌های فناوری مالی (fintech) در صنعت بانکداری ایران. رساله دکتری، دانشگاه عدالت.
روشندل اربطانی، طاهر؛ مقیمی، سید محمد؛ میناوند، محمدقلی و خواجه‌ئیان، داتیس (1391). چارچوبی برای تجاری‌سازی نوآوری‌های دیجیتال در شرکت‌های کارآفرین رسانه‌ای ایران (مطالعه‌ای چندموردی). مدیریت بازرگانی، 11(4)، 71-88.
شاه‌حسینی، محمدعلی؛ حیدری، علی؛ اعرابی، سید محمد؛ قادری کنگاوری، صادق (1398). ارائه مدلی برای مدیریت شراکت‌‌های راهبردی تحقیق و توسعه در صنعت خودروی کشور ایران. مدیریت بازرگانی، 11(1)، 25-44.
طالقانی، محمد؛ نوربخش لنگرودی، محسن محمد (1393). تأثیر به‌کارگیری فناوری اطلاعات بر بهره‌وری شرکت برق منطقه‌ای استان گیلان. مدیریت توسعه و تحول، 19، 67-76.
گزارش بانک تجارت (1398). بررسی وضعیت مشارکت بانک تجارت با فناوری‎های نوین.
گزارش پژوهش‌های مجلس (1398). بررسی صنعت فین‌تک و تدوین برنامه سیاستی توسعه. مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس، 1-72.
محمدیان، ایوب؛ میرباقری، فاطمه؛ خانلری، امیر (1398). شناسایی و طبقه‌بندی کاربردهای نوآورانه اینترنت اشیا در بازاریابی دیجیتال. مدیریت بازرگانی، 11(4)، 720-741.
ماهنامه عصر تراکنش (1397). راه پرداخت؛ رسانه فناوری‌های مالی ایران.
نجفی، فریبا؛ ایران‌دوست، منصور؛ سلطان‎پناه، هیرش؛ شیخ احمدی، امیر (1398). طراحی الگوی مدیریت ارتباط صنعت بانکداری ایران با فین‌تک‌ها و استارتاپ‌های فین تکی با رویکرد نظریه داده‌بنیاد. نشریه علمی راهبردهای بازرگانی، 16(13)، 1-18.
 
References
Aghajani, T., Rezazadeh, A., & Shoghi, B. (2014). The effect of Strategic Alliance on Organizational Performance (The case of Alliance between Navard Aluminum Arak & Aluminum Pars). Journal of Strategic Management Researches, 20(55), 9-34. 
(in Persian)
Almahdi, H. (2019). The Effects of Alliance Strategies on the Cost Efficiency of Saudi Commercial Banks. Business and Economic Research, Macro think Institute, 9(1), 84-105.
Aslani Manaf, D., & Barati, A. (2017). Investigating the effect of information technology on improving the efficiency of the organization (Case study: selected branches of Eghtesad Novin Bank in Tehran). 7th Annual Conference on Electronic Banking and Payment Systems, pp. 1-14. (in Persian)
Bachoo, T. (2017). Analysis of the Key Success Factors of the Adoption of Digital Banking: Case of Mauritius. GRIN Verlag.
Berghaus, S., & Back, A. (2016). Stages in Digital Business Transformation: Results of an Empirical Maturity Study. In Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), 1–17. 
Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A. and Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital Business Strategy: Toward a Next Generation of Insights. MIS Quarterly, 37(2), 471-482.
Bloomberg, J. (2018). Digitization, digitalization, and digital transformation: confuse them at your peril. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jasonbloomberg/2018/04/29/digitization-digitalization-and-digital-transformation-confuse-them-at-your-
Bömer, M., & Maxin, H. (2018). Why fintechs cooperate with banks—evidence from germany. Zeitschrift Für Die Gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft, 107(4), 359–386.
Broughel, J., & Thierer, A. (2019). Technological Innovation and Economic Growth: A Brief Report on the Evidence. Mercatus Research, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Arlington, VA, February 2019.
Bussmann, O. (2017). The Future of Finance: FinTech, Tech Disruption, and Orchestrating Innovation. In R. Francioni & R. A. Schwartz (Eds.), Equity Markets in Transition, pp. 473– 486.
Cacciolatti, L., Rosli, A., Ruiz-Alba, J., & Chang, J. (2020). Strategic alliances and firm performance in startups with a social mission. Journal of Business Research, 106, 106-117.
Carbo Valverde, S. (2003). Predicted and actual costs from individual bank mergers. Journal of Economics and Business, 56(2),137-157.
Carter, D. (2018). How real is the impact of artificial intelligence? The business information survey 2018. Business Information Review, 35(3), 99–115. 
Corbett, E. (2019). More People Are Taking Out Personal Loans as the Fintech Industry Grows. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2019/02/21/personal-loans-fintech-new-high/
Danylo, M. (2016). Fintech vs Banks: Cooperation or Competition? Available in: https://www.romexsoft.com/blog/fintech-vs-banks.
Dolati, S. (2018). Designing a model of interaction with financial technology companies (fintech) in the Iranian banking industry. PhD Thesis, University of Justice. (in Persian)
Eickhoff, M., Muntermann, J., & Weinrich, T. (2017). What do FinTechs actually do? A Taxonomy of FinTech Business Models. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1–19.
Ernst, B. & Young, L.L.P. (2017). Imagining the Digital future. How digital themes are transforming companies across industries.
EY. (2017). EY Fintech Adoption Index 2017: The Rapid Emergence of FinTech.
Flejterski, S., & Labun, J. (2016). The banking industry and digital innovation: in search of new business models and channels. European Journal of Service Management, 20, 5-15.
Gartner, M. (2012). Gartner says world wide mobile payment transaction value to surpass 171.5 $ billion. Shanghai, China: press Release.
Goerzen, A. (2007). Alliance Networks and firm performance: The impact of repeated partnerships. Strategic Management Journal, 28(6), 487-509.
Goerzig, D., & Bauernhansl, T. (2018). Enterprise Architectures for the Digital Transformation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In Procedia CIRP, 67, 540–545.
Gulamhuseinwala, I., Hatch, M., & Lloyd, J. (2017). EY FinTech Adoption Index 2017: The rapid emergence of FinTech. Retrieved from https://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUA ssets/eyfintech-adoption-index 2017/$FILE/ey-fintech-adoption-index-2017.pdf
Hamidizadeh, M., Zareh Ahmadabadi, H., Sangbor, M. (2014). Analyzing of critical success factor of strategic alliances (Case study: Tile & ceramic industrial cluster of Yazd). Journal of Business Management, 6(3), 517-534. (in Persian)
Harris Muluka, K. (2015). Influence of digital banking on customer satisfaction: a case of national bank of Kenya bungoma county. Department of Educational Studies University of Nairobi.
Hess, T., Benlian, A., Matt, C., & Wiesböck, F. (2016). Options for Formulating a Digital Transformation Strategy. MIS Quarterly Executive, 15(2), 123–139. 
Hosseini, S. (2017). New Financial Technology. Tehran: Navid Mehr. (in Persian)
Ito, J., Narula, N., & Ali, R. (2017). The Blockchain Will Do to the Financial System What the Internet Did to Media. Harvard Business Review, Digital Article. 
Ikechukwu Mbama, C. (2018). Digital Banking Services, Customer Experience and Financial Performance in UK Banks. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Sheffield Hallam University.
Jabar, J., Othman, A. & Idris, M. (2011). EnhancingOrganizational Performance through Strategic Technology Alliances: A Study on Malaysian Manufacturers. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 2 (6), 506-511. 
Jaubert, M., Marcu, S., Ullrich, M., Malbate, J.-B., and Dela, R. (2014). Going Digital: The Banking Transformation Roadmap. AT Kearney.
Jayadev, M. & Sensarma, R. (2007). Mergerrs in Indian Banking. Journal of Banking and Finance and Management, 1-41.
Kahveci, E., & Wolfs, B. (2018). Digital banking impact on Turkish deposit banks performance. Banks and Bank Systems, 13(3), 48-57.
Kelman, J. (2016). The History of Banking: A Comprehensive Reference Source & Guide. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
Kiprotich, S., Kemboi, A., & Kiprop, P. (2015). Moderating Effect of Social Networking on the Relationship Between Entrepreneur Orientation and Performance of Small and Medium Enterprise in Nakuru County, Kenya. European Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 3(2), 38 –52.
Kim, M. (2015). The effect of strategic alliances on firm productivity in South Korea. Journal Applied Economics, 47(47), https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2015.1042140.
Klus, M., Lohwasser, T., Hornuf, L., & Schwienbacher, A. (2018). How Do Banks Interact with Fintechs? Forms of Strategic Alliance and Their Economic Impact. pp. 1-40.
Klus, M., Lohwasser, T., Holotiuk, F., & Moormann, J. (2019). Strategic Alliances between Banks and Fintechs for Digital Innovation: Motives to Collaborate and Types of Interaction. The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, 21, 1-23.
Lee, I. and Shin, Y. J. (2018). Fintech: Ecosystem, business models, investment decisions, and challenges. Business Horizons, 61(1), 35–46.
Lee, W. (2007). Strategic alliances influence on small medium firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 60(3), 731-741.
Transaction Age Monthly (2018). Way of payment; Iranian Financial Technologies Media. 
(in Persian)
Manatt, D. (2016). Growing together: Collaboration between Regional and Community Banks and FinTech. Manatt, Phelps & Philips, LLP.
McDonald, M. P. (2012). Digital Strategy Does Not Equal IT Strategy. HBR Blog Network, available at https://hbr.org/2012/11/digital-strategy-does-not-equa.
Miller, K. (2018, July). Global Fintech investment soars to record US$57B in first half of 2018: KPMG Pulse of Fintech report. Retrieved from: https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/ media/pressreleases/2018/07/global-fintech-investment-soars-to-record-us57b.html
Mohammadian, A., Mirbageri, F., & Khanlari, A. (2020). Identification and Classification of Innovative Applications of Internet of Things in Digital Marketing. Journal of Business Management, 11(4), 719-741. (in Persian)
Muthoka, M., Oduor, P. (2014). Effects of Strategic Alliances on Organizational Performance: Supermarkets and Their Alliances in Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(34), 75-89.
Najafi F, Irandoost M, Soltanpanah H, Sheikhahmadi A. (2019). A Model for relationship management with fintech and financial startups in banking industry. Journal of Business Strategies, 16 (13), 1-18. (in Persian)
Nargesian, A., Tahmasebi Aghbolaghi, D., Dindar, Y. (2014). The impact of political marketing tools in public participation (Case study: The citizens of region five in Tehran, Iran). Journal of Public Administration, 6(3), 603-624.
Nielsen, B. (2007). Determining international strategic alliance performance: A multidimensional approach. International Business Review, 16(2), 337-361.
Nonninger, L. (2019). 2018 was a standout year for fintech funding. Retrieved from: https://www.businessinsider.com/2018-standout-fintech-funding.
Ogega, L. (2010). Strategic alliance between safaricom and equity bank in the money transfer service. Management research project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) School of Business, University of Nairobi.
Olusanya, S.O., Awotungase, S, A., & Ohadebere E. C. (2012). Effective Planning and Organisational Productivity: (A Case Study Of Sterling Bank Nigeria Plc), IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (JHSS), 5(5), 31 -39.
Parliamentary Research Report (2019). Investigate the FinTech industry and develop a policy. Parliamentary Research Center, pp. 1-72. (in Persian)
Parviainen, P., Tihinen, M., Kääriäinen, J., & Teppola, S. (2017). Tackling the digitalization challenge: how to benefit from digitalization in practice. International Journal of Information Systems and Project Management, 5(1), 63–77. 
Perry, M., Sengupta. S., & Krapfel, R. (2004). Effectiveness of horizontal strategic alliances in technologically uncertain environments, are trust and commitment enough? Journal of Business Research, 57(9), 951-956.
Puschmann, T. (2017). Fintech. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 59(1), 69–76.
Report of Tejarat Bank (2019). Investigating the status of Tejarat Bank's partnership with new technologies. (in Persian)
Roshandel Arbatani, T., Moghimi, S., Minavand, M., Khajeheian, D. (2012). Commercialization of Media Entrepreneurs' Digital Innovations. Journal of Business Management, 4(1), 71-88. (in Persian)
Scardovi, C. (2017). Digital Transformation in Financial Services. Springer.
Schueffel, P. (2016). Taming the Beast: A Scientific Definition of Fintech. Journal of Innovation Management, 4, 32-54.
Scott, S. V., Van Reenen, J., & Zachariadis, M. (2017). The long -term effect of digital innovation on bank performance: An empirical study of SWIFT adoption in financial services. Research Policy, 46(5), 984–1004.
Shah Hoseini, M.A., Heidari, A., Aarabi, S.M., Ghaderi Kangavari, S. (2019). Developing a Management Model for R&D Strategic Alliances in Automotive Industry in Iran. Journal of Business Management, 11(1), 25-44. (in Persian)
Soltani, M., Jafari, S., Binandeh, R. (2017). The Effect of Cooperation in IT Industry on Innovation Performance in Condition of Implementing Coopetition Strategy. Journal of Information Technology Management, 9(2), 313-332.
Soltani, M., Babaian Mahabadi, A., & Ayobian, B. (2016). Business leadership in the field of economic defense based on a competitive strategy. National Conference on Passive Defense and Sustainable Development, Ministry of Interior.
Soltani, M., Shahbazi, M., Ahmadian, A., & Hamidizadeh, A. (2019). Analytical and systematic overview on the paradigms of co-opetition strategy as a paradox in the strategic management literature. Iranian journal of management sciences, 14(53), 100-120.
Soltani, M., Jafari, S.M.B., & Binandeh, R. (2016). Improving Economic Firms Performance through Co-opetition Strategy. Journal of strategic Management studies, 7(26), 23-46.
Stuart, T.E. (2000). Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms, a study of growth and innovation rates in a high-technology industry. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 791-811.
Tajik Baghkhas, H. (2014). A model for value creation and value allocation through strategic partnerships in financial services institutions (in the insurance industry and banking). Ph.D. Thesis, Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian)
Talebi, K., Yadollahi Farsi, J., & Miriasl, H. (2017). Identifying the Impact of Strategic Alliances on the Performance of SMEs (Case Study: The Industry of Automotive Parts Manufacturers in Iran). International Business Research, 10(6), 227-235.
Taleghani, M., Noorbakhsh Langroodi, M. (2015). The Effect of Information Technology (IT) on the Efficiency of Gilan Regional Electric Company. Journal of Development & Evolution Management, (19), 67-76. (in Persian)
Temelkov, Z. (2018). Fintech firms opportunity or threat for banks? International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 10(1).
TJ Max, B., Wes, P., & Berger, K. (2017). Managing Strategic Alliances. (Grossi Mokhtarzadeh, Ejakhloo, Ibn Yamini, Trans). Tehran: Tehran University Press. 
(in Persian)
Wewege, L. (2017). The Digital Banking Revolution. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Yadav, P., & Marwah, C. (2015). The Concept of Productivity. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, 3(5).